Image:header-trans

Stephen's Rent-a-Badger


Image:Stephen's Rent-a-Badger
Image:Stephen's Rent-a-Badger
Image:Stephen's Rent-a-Badger

WARNING--This is a HOAX page!
DO NOT attempt ANYTHING suggested here!

On my Nuclear Blast Shelter Construction page we investigated what people did in the past when faced with the prospect of nuclear attack.

Last century, during the height of the Cold War, people in the U.S. [and elsewhere] took a very fascinating direction:

In the U.S. in September 1961, under the direction of Steuart L. Pittman, the federal government started the Community Fallout Shelter Program. A letter from President Kennedy advising the use of fallout shelters appeared in the September 1961 issue of Life magazine. Over the period 1961-1963, there was a growth in home fallout shelter sales
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fallout_shelter#North_America

With Cold War tensions escalating in the 1950s, the threat of a Soviet nuclear attack cast a terrifying shadow over everyday American life. ... Families across the country (at least those who could afford it) built fallout shelters in their basements and backyards.
https://www.history.com/news/cold-war-fallout-shelter-survival-rations-food


Image:American fallout shelter, around 1957

American fallout shelter, around 1957
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fallout_shelter#North_America

Image:American fallout shelter, around 1957

American fallout shelter, around 1957
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fallout_shelter#North_America

Image:American fallout shelter, around 1957

American fallout shelter, around 1957
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fallout_shelter#North_America

There were, however, many questions whether these crudely constructed basement and backyard shelters really would have been able to withstand the full onslaught of a nuclear blast, the power of which is just about impossible to comprehend. And the nuclear weapons being constructed now are supposedly much more powerful than what was unleashed at the end of World War 2.

Understandably, the cost of constructing a suitable shelter to withstand a current nuclear blast would be well out of reach of the average family.

Or would it?

Current developments in the world of Evolution and especially with respect to the demise of the dinosaurs with the 66 Ma Extinction Event has changed all this and brought the construction of a simple nuclear blast shelter to well within the budget of possibly the poorest family!

And the simple sort of shelter that could be construced should be possibly able to withstand the onslaught of something like up to the force of 921 billion Hiroshima A-Bombs! And because of Evolution, you too can now have such a simple structure in your back yard!

We are now living in the 21st Century, and advances in the world of technology with new supercomputers that can model the destruction that supposedly fell upon the dinosaurs and caused their extinction have given us amazing information that can be used in various fields of study. One direction of information is how to survive a nuclear blast!

Over the last few decades the majority of Evolutionists have come to accept the Alvarez Hypothesis, that a large meteor slammed into the Earth at about 66 Ma and caused the extinction of the dinosaurs. The Evolutionists then used massive supercomputer simulations to determine the possible effects of the impact. The following quotes give an idea of what the dinosaurs were up against:

Within two minutes of slamming into Earth, the asteroid, which was at least six miles wide, had gouged a crater about eighteen miles deep and lofted twenty-five trillion metric tons of debris into the atmosphere. Picture the splash of a pebble falling into pond water, but on a planetary scale. When Earth's crust rebounded, a peak higher than Mt. Everest briefly rose up. The energy released was more than that of a billion Hiroshima bombs, ...
https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2019/04/08/the-day-the-dinosaurs-died

When it slammed into our planet, it hit with the force of over 100 trillion tons of TNT, somewhere in the vicinity of a billion nuclear bombs' worth of energy. p.315.
The RISE and FALL of the DINOSAURS
A New History of Their Lost World, STEVE BRUSATTE. 2018.

The impact had a kinetic energy of more than 10 billion megatonnes. This is a thousand times the amount of energy contained in all the world's nuclear weapons arsenals. p.254.
The Dinosaurs Rediscovered, MICHAEL J. BENTON, 2019.

The Chicxulub impactor had an estimated diameter of 11-81 kilometers (6.8-50.3 mi), and delivered an estimated energy of 21-921 billion Hiroshima A-bombs
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chicxulub_crater


The Meteor
The Meteor
The Meteor
Point of impact: The Chicxulub crater at the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico.

Anyway, you get the idea. Massive destruction. And the Evolutionists tell us that most species on Earth went extinct as a result. But some survived. Like the birds. But just how did the birds survive?

Avians may have been able to survive the extinction as a result of their abilities to dive, swim, or seek shelter in water and marshlands. Many species of avians can build burrows, or nest in tree holes, or termite nests, all of which provided shelter from the environmental effects at the K-Pg boundary.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cretaceous%E2%80%93Paleogene_extinction_event

We looked at each of these in turn and one of the possible constructions was burrowing:


Image:Wombat burrow

Wombat burrow, example of burrowing

Image:Wombat burrow

Wombat burrow, example of burrowing

Image:Wombat burrow

Wombat burrow, example of burrowing

As novel as this looks it's mainly for one person unless you are going to construct something large underground. That's moving in the direction of the old style underground shelters and these can be quite expensive. Since this was an expensive option we left burrowing off our list of budget nuclear shelters and moved on to the next suggestion. But burrowing could still be a very good option for a short term budget approach while you are constructing something more expensive.

And that led to the concept of my Rent-a-Badger plan.

First I needed to find a reasonable sourced animal that would be good at burrowing. I found the following quote:

The badger is the fastest digging animal on earth, and the strongest for its size. An American badger in the midwest was observed digging through the asphalt surface of a parking lot. It took him less than two minutes to disappear completely!
https://www.pinterest.com.au/pin/174373816792969842/


Image:Badger

Badger

Image:Badger

Badger

Image:Badger

Badger

While you are waiting for your backyard underground nuclear blast shelter to be completed, which could take several months, you can have peace of mind by using my Rent-a-Badger plan to install one or more simple but very effective temporary burrows in your back yard just as a back-up in case the inevitable happens. If I can get my Rent-a-Badger plan up and running the cost of a simple burrow should be very inexpensive. And there will definitely be discounts for more than one burrow!

Just think of the peace of mind you will have as you and your family hide in your very own burrows in your back yard--just as safe as the birds hiding in burrows when the meteor hit releasing a force of up to 921 billion Hiroshima A-bombs! The birds survived and so will you and your family!

Rent-a-Wombat

Not all countries have badgers and it would be a simple matter of supplying an animal indigenous to the region that would do a similar job. For example, in Australia the largest burrowing animal would be the wombat:

The largest burrowing mammal is the wombat (Vombatus ursinus) of Australia and Tasmania. These squat, bear-like creatures can measure up to 1.2 m (4 ft) and weigh up to 35 kg (77 lb).
https://www.guinnessworldrecords.com/world-records/largest-burrowing-mammal


Image:Wombat

Wombat

Image:Wombat

Wombat

Image:Wombat

Wombat

And though a bit slower than a badger, they would still definitely get the job done!

A wombat can excavate several feet of a tunnel in a single night. One report says that a wombat dug through 6 feet of hard soil in an hour.
https://www.wombania.com/wombats/wombat-burrows.htm

There would be no extra expense for the extra time taken. Any costs would be done on burrows, not the length of time. And discounts for more than one burrow would still apply. So nomatter which country you are living in, the burrow expense using Stephen's Rent-a-Badger plan should be similarly placed. And the best news yet, my Rent-a-Badger plan will also come with my nearly 100% Worldwide Evolutionists Guarantee of Approval!

So every burrow you obtain using my Rent-a-Badger plan will have Stephen's nearly 100% Worldwide Evolutionists Guarantee of Approval.

Stephen's nearly 100% Worldwide Evolutionists Guarantee of Approval

Every burrow will come with my nearly 100% Worldwide Evolutionists Guarantee of Approval to withstand a nuclear blast force of up to 921 billion Hiroshima A-bombs. Since the majority of Evolutionists all around the world have accepted the Alvarez Hypothesis they will stand ready to back this guarantee up.

Since the birds hid in burrows to survive the dinosaur Extinction Event your burrows will be guaranteed to withstand a blast force of up to 921 billion Hiroshima A-bombs. And the majority of Evolutionists all around the world will be ready to stand by this.

Also just as an afterthought, those going down this track of purchasing a nuclear blast shelter for their back yard might also want to stock up on my Non-Avian Dino-Free Drinking Water which contains no T-Rex piss. See related page.

Guarantee Disclaimer

The guarantee is not 100%.

Unfortunately a very small minority of evolutionists have rejected the Alvarez Hypothesis that a large meteor slammed into the Earth at 66 Ma causing the extinction of the dinosaurs. These evolutionists believe that the scenarios suggested by the supercomputer simulations would have also caused the complete extinction of other susceptible species which are still alive today:

What do we do with these impact scenarios? Naturally, we compare them with the evidence from the geological record. Birds, tortoises, and mammals live on land and breathe air: the evidence from the K-T boundary shows that they survived the K-T boundary event. Therefore they and the air they breathed weren't set on broil for several hours. To put it simply, these scenarios did not happen.
https://ucmp.berkeley.edu/education/events/cowen2b.html


Image:Birds, Tortoises, Mammals: example 2 extant monotremes Image:Birds, Tortoises, Mammals: example 2 extant monotremes Image:Birds, Tortoises, Mammals: example 2 extant monotremes

Birds, Tortoises, Mammals: example 2 extant monotremes.

Image:Birds, Tortoises, Mammals: example 2 extant monotremes Image:Birds, Tortoises, Mammals: example 2 extant monotremes Image:Birds, Tortoises, Mammals: example 2 extant monotremes

Birds, Tortoises, Mammals: example 2 extant monotremes.

Image:Birds, Tortoises, Mammals: example 2 extant monotremes
Image:Birds, Tortoises, Mammals: example 2 extant monotremes Image:Birds, Tortoises, Mammals: example 2 extant monotremes

Birds, Tortoises, Mammals: example 2 extant monotremes.

The survival of birds is the strangest of all the K-T boundary events, if we are to accept the catastrophic scenarios. Smaller dinosaurs overlapped with larger birds in size and in ecological roles as terrestrial bipeds. How did birds survive while dinosaurs did not? Birds seek food in the open, by sight; they are small and warm-blooded, with high metabolic rates and small energy stores. Even a sudden storm or a slightly severe winter can cause high mortality among bird populations. Yet an impact scenario, according to its enthusiasts, includes "a nightmare of environmental disasters, including storms, tsunamis, cold and darkness, greenhouse warming, acid rains and global fires." There must be some explanation for the survival of birds, turtles, and crocodiles through any catastrophe of this scale, or else the catastrophe models are wrong.
https://ucmp.berkeley.edu/education/events/cowen3b.html


Image:Birds, Turtles, Crocodiles Image:Birds, Turtles, Crocodiles Image:Birds, Turtles, Crocodiles

Birds, Turtles, Crocodiles.

Image:Birds, Turtles, Crocodiles Image:Birds, Turtles, Crocodiles Image:Birds, Turtles, Crocodiles

Birds, Turtles, Crocodiles.

Image:Birds, Turtles, Crocodiles
Image:Birds, Turtles, Crocodiles Image:Birds, Turtles, Crocodiles

Birds, Turtles, Crocodiles.

there was no extinction in the insects, a group that should have been the most sensitive to a global catastrophe predicted by the impact advocates. ... Nor do the birds show much extinction, even though they too should have been vulnerable (Chiappe 1995). ...
some extreme impact scenarios postulate extensive acid rain bathing the earth for a long time after the impact. However, the survival of amphibians shows that this is simply a fantasy (Weil 1984). Amphibians breathe through their porous skins and are sensitive to slight changes in the acidity of their watery habitat. Even now, the slightly more acidic conditions of lakes and ponds due to human-induced acid rain are causing frogs and salamanders to die out rapidly. If the entire earth had been subjected to a huge acid bath, there simply would not be a frog or salamander alive on the earth today. p.38.
After the Dinosaurs, Donald R. Prothero, 2006.


Image:Frogs, Salamanders Image:Frogs, Salamanders

Frogs, Salamanders

Image:Frogs, Salamanders Image:Frogs, Salamanders

Frogs, Salamanders

Image:Frogs, Salamanders Image:Frogs, Salamanders

Frogs, Salamanders

Further, since we do still have these susceptible species with us today, this strongly suggests that the Alvarez Hypothesis is indeed a complete fantasy. No meteor slammed into the Earth at 66 Ma causing a supposed extinction of the dinosaurs. The birds never had to survive a blast force of up to 921 billion Hiroshima A-bombs!!


Image:Species that should be extinct! Birds Image:Species that should be extinct! Tortoises Image:Species that should be extinct! Mammals
Image:Species that should be extinct! Crocodiles Image:Species that should be extinct! Frogs Image:Species that should be extinct! Salamanders Image:Species that should be extinct! Turtles

Some species that should be extinct!

Image:Species that should be extinct! Birds Image:Species that should be extinct! Tortoises Image:Species that should be extinct! Mammals
Image:Species that should be extinct! Crocodiles Image:Species that should be extinct! Frogs Image:Species that should be extinct! Salamanders Image:Species that should be extinct! Turtles

Some species that should be extinct!

Image:Species that should be extinct! Birds Image:Species that should be extinct! Frogs Image:Species that should be extinct! Salamanders
Image:Species that should be extinct! Crocodiles Image:Species that should be extinct! Tortoises Image:Species that should be extinct! Turtles
Image:Species that should be extinct! Mammals

Some species that should be extinct!

This means that none of our suggested budget nuclear shelters may provide any protection whatsoever.

Because the Alvarez Hypothesis is a complete fantasy, the Evolutionist's suggested nuclear blast budget shelters are probably worse than useless. NO ONE should attempt ANY of the suggested budget shelters mentioned here under ANY conditions! Especially a nuclear attack!!

BREAKING NEWS Apr 2021: Stephen's Rent-a-Badger will be closing down
and currently no orders will be processed.

We express humble apologies to any who have been waiting for the program to get up and running. At this point in time that is not going to happen due to this latest news.

A study [still ongoing] into the dinosaurs and Cretaceous birds has given some very surprising results. The list so far does give us a reasonable sample of small bird-like feathered dinosaurs, avian dinosaurs, and Cretaceous birds [go figure] making it to the K-Pg Extinction Event at 66 Ma. But that is as far as they got. The conclusion was only too obvious. Despite all the Evolutionist hoo-ha and bravado it actually looks like none of the avian dinosaurs survived the Cretaceous-Paleogene Extinction Event!!

And the reasons why are only too painfully obvious. The Evolutionists have been touting that the birds survived the Extinction Event for the following reasons:

Avians may have been able to survive the extinction as a result of their abilities to dive, swim, or seek shelter in water and marshlands. Many species of avians can build burrows, or nest in tree holes, or termite nests, all of which provided shelter from the environmental effects at the K-Pg boundary.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cretaceous%E2%80%93Paleogene_extinction_event

But sadly, the Cretaceous birds did not survive. So none of these suggested hiding places provided the necessary shelter to be able to withstand the meteor impact blast force of up to 921 billion Hiroshima A-bombs!

With this sad bit of news we have no option but to close down any activities suggesting that any of our Evolutionary budget approaches may provide any protection in the face of a nuclear blast.

The majority of Evolutionists around the world are still backing the birds and no doubt will continue to support these approaches.

But I have come to a point where I no longer believe that any of these approaches are tenable and safe and as a result will be closing all activities in this direction. This includes my Termite Mound Farming Program and Stephen's Rent-a-Badger.

Again, I humbly apologize if this has caused any inconvenience but I believe the best interests of public safety must come first.

Again, thanks to all of our supporters and sadly they will just have to choose the more expensive options instead of our Evolutionary budget approaches.

Stephen

PS:
There are currently no plans to close down Stephen's Non-Avian Dino-Free Drinking Water: Contains no T-Rex piss. That's still a good idea and may be pursued sometime in the future, even if the problem with the avian-dino piss can't be resolved.


REFERENCES


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Fallout_shelter_photo.png
1950s fallout shelter
Unknown author
Public Domain

Badger
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:%27Honey%27_the_badger.jpg
Badger on dry ground facing the camera. Seen at the British Wildlife Centre, Newchapel, Surrey. 'Honey', the badger, at the afternoon Keeper's talk.
Attribution: Peter Trimming
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license.

Wombat
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Vombatus_ursinus_-Maria_Island_National_Park.jpg
Common Wombat (Vombatus ursinus tasmaniensis) on Maria Island, Tasmania, Australia. The entire island is a national park, Maria Island National Park. The adult is just under a metre in length on average. Attribution: JJ Harrison This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.

Wombat burrow
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Wombat_burrow.JPG
Public Domain

Note: when I mention the extinction of the dinosaurs this is not making a clear distinction. By the extinction of the dinosaurs I mean in general the non-avian dinosaurs.

Ma - million years ago.
Ba - billion years ago.

K-T, K-Pg boundary, extinction event
Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event
The Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) extinction event (also known as the Cretaceous–Tertiary (K–T) extinction) was a sudden mass extinction of three-quarters of the plant and animal species on Earth, approximately 66 million years ago.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cretaceous%E2%80%93Paleogene_extinction_event

Chicxulub
pronounced [and my choice of a few]:
"Chik-shoo-loob"
http://dml.cmnh.org/2002Dec/msg00487.html

Chicxulub impact site
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chicxulub_impact_-_artist_impression.jpg
This painting by Donald E. Davis depicts an asteroid slamming into tropical, shallow seas of the sulfur-rich Yucatan Peninsula in what is today southeast Mexico. The aftermath of this immense asteroid collision, which occurred approximately 65 million years ago, is believed to have caused the extinction of the dinosaurs and many other species on Earth. The impact spewed hundreds of billions of tons of sulfur into the atmosphere, producing a worldwide blackout and freezing temperatures which persisted for at least a decade. Shown in this painting are pterodactyls, flying reptiles with wingspans of up to 50 feet, gliding above low tropical clouds.
Author: Donald E. Davis
Public domain

Bird pics
https://www.publicdomainpictures.net
Public domain

Frog
Temporal range:
Early Jurassic - Present, 200-0 Ma
A frog is any member of a diverse and largely carnivorous group of short-bodied, tailless amphibians composing the order Anura (literally without tail in Ancient Greek). The oldest fossil "proto-frog" appeared in the early Triassic of Madagascar, but molecular clock dating suggests their origins may extend further back to the Permian, 265 million years ago.
They are also seen as environmental bellwethers, with declines in frog populations often viewed as early warning signs of environmental damage.
For the skin to serve as a respiratory organ, it must remain moist. This makes frogs susceptible to various substances they may encounter in the environment, some of which may be toxic and can dissolve in the water film and be passed into their bloodstream.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frog

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Litoria_phyllochroa.JPG
Attribution: Froggydarb
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.

Crocodile
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nile_croc_couple_690V1510_-_Flickr_-_Lip_Kee.jpg
Attribution: Lip Kee from Singapore, Republic of Singapore
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic license.
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/deed.en

Platypus + Echidna pics
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Monotreme_collage.jpg
Four of the five extant monotreme species: platypus (top-left), short-beaked echidna (top-right), western long-beaked echidna (bottom-left), and replica eastern long-beaked echidna (bottom-right).
Constituent files:
File:Platypus BrokenRiver QLD Australia.jpg
File:Long-beakedEchidna.jpg
File:Echidna in the Karawatha Forest - Radford.jpg
File:Zaglossus bartoni - MUSE.JPG
Attribution: Ypna
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International license.
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.en

Monotremes
Temporal range: Early Cretaceous-Recent
[pic]
Four of the five extant monotreme species: platypus (top-left), short-beaked echidna (top-right), western long-beaked echidna (bottom-left), and replica eastern long-beaked echidna (bottom-right)
Monotremes (/ˈmɒnətriːmz/, from Greek μονός, monos ('single') and τρῆμα, trema ('hole'), referring to the cloaca) are one of the three main groups of living mammals, along with placentals (Eutheria) and marsupials (Metatheria).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monotreme

The platypus is one of the few monotremes still in existence today. The egg-laying mammal was only recently discovered to have lived during the Jurassic period. After analyzing a Teinolophos jawbone in 2008, University of Texas paleontologist Tim Rowe discovered that platypuses dated back as far as 122 million years ago.
Platypuses are one of only two mammalian species that lay eggs, the other being echidnas, or spiny anteaters.
https://www.huffpost.com/entry/animals-as-old-as-dinosaurs_n_6982300

Teinolophos
Temporal range: Aptian ~120-113 Ma Teinolophos is a prehistoric species of monotreme, or egg-laying mammal. It is known from four specimens, each consisting of a partial lower jawbone collected from the Wonthaggi Formation at Flat Rocks, Victoria, Australia. It lived during the Aptian age of the Lower Cretaceous.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teinolophos

Platypus
Evolution, paleontology, and classification
Aquatically adapted platypus-like monotremes probably evolved from a more-generalized terrestrial monotreme. The first occurrence in the fossil record of a platypus-like monotreme is from about 110 million years ago, in the early Cretaceous Period, when Australia was still connected to South America by Antarctica.
https://www.britannica.com/animal/platypus

Salamander
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:SpottedSalamander.jpg
Attribution: Camazine at English Wikipedia
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.

Salamander
Temporal range:
Late Jurassic - Present, 160-0 Ma
Salamanders are a group of amphibians typically characterized by a lizard-like appearance, with slender bodies, blunt snouts, short limbs projecting at right angles to the body, and the presence of a tail in both larvae and adults.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salamander

Tortoise
https://www.publicdomainpictures.net
Public domain

Turtle
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Florida_Box_Turtle_Digon3_re-edited.jpg
Florida Box Turtle
Attribution: Jonathan Zander (Digon3)
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Fallout_shelter_photo.png
1950s fallout shelter
Unknown author
Public Domain

Badger
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:%27Honey%27_the_badger.jpg
Badger on dry ground facing the camera. Seen at the British Wildlife Centre, Newchapel, Surrey. 'Honey', the badger, at the afternoon Keeper's talk.
Attribution: Peter Trimming
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license.

Wombat
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Vombatus_ursinus_-Maria_Island_National_Park.jpg
Common Wombat (Vombatus ursinus tasmaniensis) on Maria Island, Tasmania, Australia. The entire island is a national park, Maria Island National Park. The adult is just under a metre in length on average. Attribution: JJ Harrison This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.

Wombat burrow
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Wombat_burrow.JPG
Public Domain

Note: when I mention the extinction of the dinosaurs this is not making a clear distinction. By the extinction of the dinosaurs I mean in general the non-avian dinosaurs.

Ma - million years ago.
Ba - billion years ago.

K-T, K-Pg boundary, extinction event
Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event
The Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) extinction event (also known as the Cretaceous–Tertiary (K–T) extinction) was a sudden mass extinction of three-quarters of the plant and animal species on Earth, approximately 66 million years ago.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cretaceous%E2%80%93Paleogene_extinction_event

Chicxulub
pronounced [and my choice of a few]:
"Chik-shoo-loob"
http://dml.cmnh.org/2002Dec/msg00487.html

Chicxulub impact site
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chicxulub_impact_-_artist_impression.jpg
This painting by Donald E. Davis depicts an asteroid slamming into tropical, shallow seas of the sulfur-rich Yucatan Peninsula in what is today southeast Mexico. The aftermath of this immense asteroid collision, which occurred approximately 65 million years ago, is believed to have caused the extinction of the dinosaurs and many other species on Earth. The impact spewed hundreds of billions of tons of sulfur into the atmosphere, producing a worldwide blackout and freezing temperatures which persisted for at least a decade. Shown in this painting are pterodactyls, flying reptiles with wingspans of up to 50 feet, gliding above low tropical clouds.
Author: Donald E. Davis
Public domain

Bird pics
https://www.publicdomainpictures.net
Public domain

Frog
Temporal range:
Early Jurassic - Present, 200-0 Ma
A frog is any member of a diverse and largely carnivorous group of short-bodied, tailless amphibians composing the order Anura (literally without tail in Ancient Greek). The oldest fossil "proto-frog" appeared in the early Triassic of Madagascar, but molecular clock dating suggests their origins may extend further back to the Permian, 265 million years ago.
They are also seen as environmental bellwethers, with declines in frog populations often viewed as early warning signs of environmental damage.
For the skin to serve as a respiratory organ, it must remain moist. This makes frogs susceptible to various substances they may encounter in the environment, some of which may be toxic and can dissolve in the water film and be passed into their bloodstream.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frog

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Litoria_phyllochroa.JPG
Attribution: Froggydarb
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.

Crocodile
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nile_croc_couple_690V1510_-_Flickr_-_Lip_Kee.jpg
Attribution: Lip Kee from Singapore, Republic of Singapore
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic license.
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/deed.en

Platypus + Echidna pics
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Monotreme_collage.jpg
Four of the five extant monotreme species: platypus (top-left), short-beaked echidna (top-right), western long-beaked echidna (bottom-left), and replica eastern long-beaked echidna (bottom-right).
Constituent files:
File:Platypus BrokenRiver QLD Australia.jpg
File:Long-beakedEchidna.jpg
File:Echidna in the Karawatha Forest - Radford.jpg
File:Zaglossus bartoni - MUSE.JPG
Attribution: Ypna
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International license.
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.en

Monotremes
Temporal range: Early Cretaceous-Recent
[pic]
Four of the five extant monotreme species: platypus (top-left), short-beaked echidna (top-right), western long-beaked echidna (bottom-left), and replica eastern long-beaked echidna (bottom-right)
Monotremes (/ˈmɒnətriːmz/, from Greek μονός, monos ('single') and τρῆμα, trema ('hole'), referring to the cloaca) are one of the three main groups of living mammals, along with placentals (Eutheria) and marsupials (Metatheria).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monotreme

The platypus is one of the few monotremes still in existence today. The egg-laying mammal was only recently discovered to have lived during the Jurassic period. After analyzing a Teinolophos jawbone in 2008, University of Texas paleontologist Tim Rowe discovered that platypuses dated back as far as 122 million years ago.
Platypuses are one of only two mammalian species that lay eggs, the other being echidnas, or spiny anteaters.
https://www.huffpost.com/entry/animals-as-old-as-dinosaurs_n_6982300

Teinolophos
Temporal range: Aptian ~120-113 Ma Teinolophos is a prehistoric species of monotreme, or egg-laying mammal. It is known from four specimens, each consisting of a partial lower jawbone collected from the Wonthaggi Formation at Flat Rocks, Victoria, Australia. It lived during the Aptian age of the Lower Cretaceous.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teinolophos

Platypus
Evolution, paleontology, and classification
Aquatically adapted platypus-like monotremes probably evolved from a more-generalized terrestrial monotreme. The first occurrence in the fossil record of a platypus-like monotreme is from about 110 million years ago, in the early Cretaceous Period, when Australia was still connected to South America by Antarctica.
https://www.britannica.com/animal/platypus

Salamander
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:SpottedSalamander.jpg
Attribution: Camazine at English Wikipedia
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.

Salamander
Temporal range:
Late Jurassic - Present, 160-0 Ma
Salamanders are a group of amphibians typically characterized by a lizard-like appearance, with slender bodies, blunt snouts, short limbs projecting at right angles to the body, and the presence of a tail in both larvae and adults.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salamander

Tortoise
https://www.publicdomainpictures.net
Public domain

Turtle
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Florida_Box_Turtle_Digon3_re-edited.jpg
Florida Box Turtle
Attribution: Jonathan Zander (Digon3)
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.


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Stephen Buckley
E-mail: stephen [at] greatesthoax.info
Last revised: 4 Jul 2021.
Construction started about 19 Feb 2021.


Page design/construction Stephen Buckley 2021.