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The Greatest Hoax in the World

Late August 2020, I decided to dust off some old sermons from possibly 2003 about the age of the earth and try to bring them up to date. Basically the approach was to use anything useful in them and try to resolve the problem with the dinosaurs from a Christian perspective. For the majority of my life I had believed that these amazing creatures had walked on our planet so many years ago. Since becoming a Christian maybe not so many years ago. Though in the end I had used absolutely nothing from my previous sermons, by the 30th of August I had found so many interesting things in relation to the dinosaurs, it was like a completely new revelation. For me it was indeed a quantum shift.

IS EVOLUTION TRUE?

IS THE PREHISTORIC RECORD IN THE ROCKS RELIABLE?

DID IT REALLY TAKE 3932 MY TO GET A T-REX?*

OR DID THE ANTEDILUVIANS GET THERE IN A MUCH SHORTER TIME?

*using Simple single-celled life at approx 4000 Ma to the T-Rex at 68 Ma. Difference = 3932 Million years.
My million years
Ma million years ago
Ba billion years ago


Image:JUST WHERE DO THE DINOSAURS FIT?

Just where do the dinosaurs fit in?

Well we all know what the evolutionists believe. But where do we think they fit?

There are a few different views but the most common Christian one is that God created the dinosaurs along with all the other creatures.

This leaves a puzzling question as to why they are not around today? Weren't all animal species saved in Noah's ark?

Maybe not.

There is some conjecture among Christians that with the race deteriorating perhaps the Lord let some of the larger powerful animals perish in the Flood as mankind would not be able to handle them.

Some feel that the dinosaurs were not taken aboard the ark. For some unspoken reason, they were allowed to perish in the Flood. Several possibilities have been suggested.

First, God knew that fear and dread of human beings would be placed in all the animals after the Flood. Because of their tremendous size, Noah and his descendants would not have been able to deal with them if they became hostile.
Don Stewart :: What Happened to the Dinosaurs?
https://www.blueletterbible.org/faq/don_stewart/don_stewart_672.cfm

So by this perhaps God did create the dinosaurs, but they were not kept for the postdiluvian world.

And there are Christian books for children supporting the creation of the dinosaurs.

For example,
The Great Dinosaur Mystery and the Bible,
Dinosaurs of Eden,
D is for Dinosaur,
and
God's Dinosaurs


Image:The Great Dinosaur Mystery and the Bible Image:Dinosaurs of Eden

Image:The Great Dinosaur Mystery and the Bible Image:Dinosaurs of Eden

Image:The Great Dinosaur Mystery and the Bible

Image:Dinosaurs of Eden


Image:D is for Dinosaur Image:God's Dinosaurs Fun Book

Image:D is for Dinosaur Image:God's Dinosaurs Fun Book

Image:D is for Dinosaur

Image:God's Dinosaurs Fun Book

Though I do not question the sincerity of the authors, I struggle with the thought of a T-Rex frolicking around the Garden of Eden.

But maybe that's just me. And there is another option that I have considered over the years.

THE DINOSAURS AROSE SOME OTHER WAY

There is some speculation that the antediluvians may have had a hand in this.

Over the years I have given this some thought and decided that this option was worth investigating.

As to reasons why the antediluvians would generate such a vicious multitude of reptile species it is not hard to speculate on. From the Bible we read:

And GOD saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually. Genesis 6:5 KJV.

Maybe they bred them for fighting?
They would have started off small and as the years progressed would have bred larger and meaner reptiles eventually ending up with something like a T-Rex.

But as novel as this premise was, it all came crashing down when I realised that I was staring at just too many dinosaurs. Not only were there too many known species but apparently we have entered some sort of dinosaur renaissance where the paleontologists are just about pulling them out of the ground left, right, and center! And they are finding them all over the world!

Somewhere around the world—from the deserts of Argentina to the frozen wastelands of Alaska—a new species of dinosaur is currently being found, on average, once a week. Let that sink in: a new dinosaur every ... single ... week. That's about fifty new species each year...
The Rise and Fall of the Dinosaurs, Steve Brusatte, p.6, 2018.

Scientists have created a massive database of fossils discovered all around the world in a painstaking project that covers 165 million years of dinosaur evolution.
The Paleobiology Database encompasses all known dinosaur species, with more than 2,000 types represented across every continent on Earth.
And, it's steadily growing, as researchers continue to discover new dinosaurs 'to the tune of a new species every month or two.'
https://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-4279612/Interactive-map-dinosaur-fossil-Earth.html

With the antediluvians we have about 1500 years to play with for them to breed up to something like 2000 different species and with approximately 50 per year being found we could easily push this to 3000 or more. Given a supposed T-Rex maturity age of approximately 20 years I would say this is just plain impossible. So we can cross the antediluvians off the list for dinosaur blaming.

With the antediluvians out of the way we next look at the Flood.

The general Christian consensus appears to be that all the dinosaur fossils were laid as a result of the Flood. Is this possible?

Just considering the thickness of Mesozoic rocks one quote gives

The aggregate thickness of Mesozoic rocks is about 3,350 feet (Merriam, 1963).
Stratigraphic Succession in Kansas (1968)
http://www.kgs.ku.edu/Publications/Bulletins/189/09_meso.html

Though this may be a localised estimate it does give a general idea. We need the Flood to be able to generate about 3000 feet of layers of rock to contain all the dinosaur fossils. Actually all the fossils in the geological column have to squeeze in here. Adding more thousands of feet of sedimentation.

It just doesn't seem possible.

Unfortunately things then got more complicated. I ran across evolutionists complaining about dinosaur tracks and nests.

Apparently the evolutionists have been complaining for some time that creationists can't use the Flood to answer these various rock layer finds. And when I thought about it, I saw their point.

Earth: The Science Behind the Headlines
Making Jurassic Tracks in the Jura
by Naomi Lubick
Tuesday, June 12, 2018
The footprints buried here came to light nearly a decade ago, when construction on the Transjurane Highway, meant to join Switzerland and France, unearthed layer upon layer of fossilized footprints. The Courtedoux tracksite, one of the first track-bearing layers uncovered in 2002, contains imprints made by multiple species of sauropods and tridactyls (three-digit bipeds, some of which are thought to be theropods), including herbivores and carnivores both large and small. Eventually, geologists identified more than 280 trackways, with footprints ranging from several centimeters to about a meter long that number in the thousands.
https://www.earthmagazine.org/article/making-jurassic-tracks-jura

Or more simplified...

layer upon layer of fossilized footprints. ... contains imprints made by multiple species of sauropods and tridactyls ... more than 280 trackways, with footprints ... that number in the thousands.



Image:Dinosaur tracksite in the Cretaceous of Colorado, USA. Image:Dinosaur Footprints found in the Chewore Hunting area of Zimbabwe.

Image:Dinosaur tracksite in the Cretaceous of Colorado, USA. Image:Dinosaur Footprints found in the Chewore Hunting area of Zimbabwe.

Image:Dinosaur tracksite in the Cretaceous of Colorado, USA.

Image:Dinosaur Footprints found in the Chewore Hunting area of Zimbabwe.

These different layers should have taken many years to form so could not have all have been from the Flood.

And when I looked at the nests I saw the same problem.

many new nesting sites have been found all over the world
Dinosaur eggs are known from a variety of depositional environments.
Beach sands: Floodplains: Sand dunes:
One ancient beach deposit in northeastern Spain actually preserves about 300,000 fossil dinosaur eggs.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dinosaur_egg



Image:Fossil exhibit in the Kunming Natural History Museum of Zoology Image:A nest of eggs of Protoceratops from Mongolia

Image:Fossil exhibit in the Kunming Natural History Museum of Zoology Image:A nest of eggs of Protoceratops from Mongolia

Image:Fossil exhibit in the Kunming Natural History Museum of Zoology

Image:A nest of eggs of Protoceratops from Mongolia

It doesn't seem possible that these could all be from the Flood especially if they are from different depositional environments. Also when we look at nests with juvenile dinosaurs that also raises a curious question.

A nest of 15 young dinosaurs uncovered in Mongolia — cousins of Triceratops — now suggests these plant-eating beasts might have cared for their young, scientists reveal.

The dinosaur is named Protoceratops andrewsi, a sheep-size herbivore that lived about 70 million years ago that's known for the frill at the back of its head. Within the nest were infants about 4 to 6 inches (10 to 15 centimeters) long and probably no more than a year old.
https://news.yahoo.com/15-infant-dinosaurs-discovered-crowded-nest-161409482.html



Image:The first fossils of Maiasaura were discovered in 1978. The genus was named in 1979. The name refers to the find of nests with eggs, embryos and young animals, in a nesting colony.

Image:The first fossils of Maiasaura were discovered in 1978. The genus was named in 1979. The name refers to the find of nests with eggs, embryos and young animals, in a nesting colony.

Image:The first fossils of Maiasaura were discovered in 1978. The genus was named in 1979. The name refers to the find of nests with eggs, embryos and young animals, in a nesting colony.

The pic here is a museum reconstruction of a Maiasaurus nest but you get the idea – small juvenile dinosaurs in a nest. A few questions here but the main one for us is how they stayed in the nest if they were in rising floodwaters. Wouldn't they float out? For the Flood the waters would have also been very turbulent—they most likely would have been washed out.

So again we cannot fit these in the Flood depositions.

So where do we go from here?

If not the Flood we still have the antediluvian period. However, to get fossils we need water.

Once remains are buried under sediment, their decomposition slows down due to a lack of oxygen, giving enough time for fossilisation to occur.

Dr David Button, a dinosaur researcher at the Museum, says, 'Most of the dinosaur fossils we find are from animals that were living near to a lake or river.'
How are dinosaur fossils formed?
NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM
https://www.nhm.ac.uk/discover/how-are-fossils-formed.html


Now the question is, Did it rain before the Flood?

Christians are divided on this one.

If it did not rain and most likely then no local flooding occurred we have an instant answer—we can't get all the dinosaur fossils from this period.

So let's make the assumption that it did rain. The question then is would it have been enough to get all the dinosaur fossils we require for the Mesozoic era in the rocks?

Scientists have created a massive database of fossils discovered all around the world in a painstaking project that covers 165 million years of dinosaur evolution.
https://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-4279612/Interactive-map-dinosaur-fossil-Earth.html

The aggregate thickness of Mesozoic rocks is about 3,350 feet (Merriam, 1963).
Stratigraphic Succession in Kansas (1968)
http://www.kgs.ku.edu/Publications/Bulletins/189/09_meso.html

Holmes lists a maximum total thickness of 452,000 feet of rocks that are known to contain fossils of animals with hard parts; only 125,000 feet of which were deposited when the dinosaurs existed.
CORRELATION AND STRATA: FINDASAURUS
https://ucmp.berkeley.edu/fosrec/MunGun3.html

It doesn't matter how we tackle this. If we go by the total thickness [3350 or 125,000 ft?] it's difficult to see this happening even with some local flooding twice a year through the antediluvian period of approximately 1650 years.

If we use the theoretical time of 165 My for the dinosaurs then allowing say for some really good flooding every 100 years we still end up with about 1.65 M stratum of sediment to be laid. And if we say again twice a year with local flooding we're going to need 825,000 years for the antediluvian period. It just won't work.

This just shows that we cannot use the antediluvian period and we move on.

So at this point I was just continuing to search to see if an answer to all of this could be found anywhere. If there is an answer we should be able to find it.

From the geological column the supposed beginning of life out of some inanimate chemical soup [Darwin's little pond] supposedly starts at about 4 Ba [billion years ago].

Going up we find: Algae, Trilobites, Sponges, Molluscs, Sharks, Insects, Amphibians, Reptiles, Mammals, Mammal-like reptiles.

Note: in an attempt to make sense of all of this we are going to pretend that the Deep Time ages for these rocks are correct. And see what happens.

We eventually get to...

The Mesozoic era 251.902-66 Ma

with periods:

Triassic 251.902-201.3 Ma
Jurassic 201.3-145 Ma; and
Cretaceous 145-66 Ma

But at 66 Ma I found something very interesting...


Image:Extinction of the Dinosaurs

The terminology has changed a bit over the years. These days they talk about non-avian and avian dinosaurs. With the avian dinosaurs supposedly being the birds and they never went extinct but are still with us. So when we talk about the big extinction of the dinosaurs this is referring to the non-avian dinosaurs.

Birds are a group of feathered theropod dinosaurs and constitute the only living dinosaurs. ... According to DNA evidence, modern birds (Neornithes) evolved in the Middle to Late Cretaceous, and diversified dramatically around the time of the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event 66 mya, which killed off the pterosaurs and all non-avian dinosaurs.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bird

Something really climactic happened here!

And that got me thinking. Something really big happened and wiped them all out. Just the dinosaurs. Really big animals. Which had been there supposedly for a very long time. Surely whatever it was must have killed off a lot of other species too?

Just what other species were back there with the dinosaurs at this point in time?
It didn't take too long to come up with a small list of other animals that were there with the dinosaurs.

I easily came up with 5 possible species. And over time I found a few more, some from the Evolutionists themselves who apparently also had some questions about the extinction. And of course the birds who are extremely important to this study.

The complete list I ended up with was:

snakes, birds, frogs, salamanders, crocodiles, turtles, sharks, and monotremes!

Shark: Ludfordian-Present, 425–0 Ma

Snake: Late Cretaceous – Present, 94–0 Ma

Crocodylomorpha, includes Crocodiles
Late Triassic–Recent, 235–0 Ma [we could simply call all of these 'crocs']

Salamander: Late Jurassic – Present, 160–0 Ma

Frogs: Early Jurassic – Present, 200–0 Ma

Testudines, includes Turtles and Tortoises
Early Jurassic—present, 190–0 Ma

Monotremes: Early Cretaceous-Recent, 120–0 Ma
Extant monotremes include the duck-billed platypus and the echidna [spiny anteater].

Birds: Early Cretaceous (Aptian) – Present, 121–0 Ma

And if any of these were technically not there, like the crocodiles and tortoises, they were there in their ancestors, crocodylomorpha and testudines.

And though there would have also been many other species these were the main ones I needed to focus on.

Note that the big dinosaur extinction is given at the close of the Cretaceous at 66 Ma and all of these other creatures, or some form of their ancestors, were supposedly back there with them when whatever it was happened.

Image:Pics of other creatures

So why do we have these other creatures still with us if the dinosaurs did not survive the extinction event?

70 cm; 26 kg

Image:Nothing larger than a raccoon survived

The fossil data, where it is available, reveals that nothing larger than a raccoon survived. Such small-bodied species were more likely to survive because they lived in greater numbers, ate less, and could reproduce and adapt faster.
http://www.bbc.com/earth/story/20160415-what-really-happened-when-the-dino-killer-asteroid-struck

the Cretaceous-Tertiary or K/T extinction event -- spelled doom for the dinosaurs and many other species. Some animals, however, including many small mammals, managed to survive.
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/01/100131221348.htm

It appears that one of the arguments put up was that the dinosaurs were large and small-bodied species were more likely to survive.

But there were small dinosaurs. Here are some that supposedly were there at the extinction point. Remember, thinking dinosaurs we usually think in tonnes, except for the small ones.
Note: The type pics here are not necessarily the dinosaur named but give an indication of what it looked like.
Lengths and weights may be approximate.

DINO TYPE NAME
NOASAURID
Image:Noasaurid: Masiakasaurus
NOASAURUS
1.5 m 15 kg

OVIRAPTORID
Image:Oviraptorid: Heyuannia
HEYUANNIA
1.5 m 20 kg

TROODONTID
Image:Troodontid: Stenonychosaurus
BOROGOVIA
2.0 m 20 kg

ORNITHOMIMID
Image:Ornithomimid: Qiupalong
ANSERIMIMUS
3.0 m 50 kg

LEPTOCERATOPSID
Image:Leptoceratopsid: Zhuchengceratops
LEPTOCERATOPS
2.0 m 100 kg

HADROSAURID
Image:Hadrosaurid: Barsboldia
SECERNOSAURUS
3.0 m 140 kg

If animals survived the extinction event because they were small, why didn't these small dinosaurs survive?

And if we look at these small feathered non-avian dinosaurs that look very much like birds, it makes you wonder, if the birds survived the extinction event, then why didn't these dinosaurs?

DINO TYPE NAME

OVIRAPTORID
Image:Oviraptorid: Heyuannia
HEYUANNIA
1.5 m 20 kg

TROODONTID
Image:Troodontid: Stenonychosaurus
BOROGOVIA
2.0 m 20 kg

ORNITHOMIMID
Image:Ornithomimid: Qiupalong
ANSERIMIMUS
3.0 m 50 kg

And what about the bigger dinosaurs? We have bigger animals that were supposedly with them back then that did survive. So why didn't they?

Crocodiles, current weight at about 1100 kg and 6 m long – that would make a pretty hefty dinosaur! Their crocodilamorph ancestors were there so why didn't large 1 tonne dinosaurs survive?

Chenanisuchus ("Chenane crocodile") is a genus of dyrosaurid crocodyliform from the Late Cretaceous of Mali and the Late Palaeocene of Sidi Chenane in Morocco.
Chenanisuchus lateroculi has an estimated adult length between 4 and 4.5 meters, based on the 60 centimeter long skull.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chenanisuchus

Length 4.5 m
Weight guesstimate using American alligator: 570 kg.

Crocodyliform
Chenanisuchus
Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) - Paleocene
Length: 4.5 metres
Weight: 570 kg

Image: Chenanisuchus, a genus of dyrosaurid crocodyliform from the Late Cretaceous of Mali and the Late Palaeocene of Sidi Chenane in Morocco

Note: this one is a LOT larger than a raccoon! [so are sharks!]

This animal survived. So why didn't large dinosaurs?

Or how about this one?

Carbonemys: Turtle
Mid-Late Paleocene ~60–58 Ma
Length: 2.25 metres
Weight: 640 kg

Image: Carbonemys: Turtle

Classified as a turtle, sure looks like a tortoise. Weight and length a rough guess going on approximate information. A few million years past the extinction point but gives a pretty good idea of the size of its ancestors with the dinosaurs.

Then we have the mosasaurs.

Mosasaurs? An interesting story.

Mosasaur
Late Cretaceous, 101-66 Ma
Length: 18 metres
Weight: 14 tonnes

Image: Mosasaurus missouriensis

Mosasaurs comprise a group of extinct, large marine reptiles.
The largest known species, may have reached up to 17 m in length. The largest publicly exhibited mosasaur skeleton in the world, nicknamed "Bruce", is just over 13 m long.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mosasaur

Google gives 18 m and 14 tonnes generic values.

Using this info we could guess Bruce's weight at about 5.3 tonnes.

A very curious hypothesis, based on morphology, suggests the ancestors of snakes were related to mosasaurs.

Well, there were mosasaurs and snakes at the extinction event, so why didn't they both survive? And we could add some other small non-dinosaur reptiles to this question.

Another large aquatic creature: Plesiosaurs

Plesiosaurs first appeared in the latest Triassic Period supposedly about 203 million years ago. Some reached a length of up to seventeen metres and a weight of ten tonnes.

plesiosaurs are an order or clade of extinct Mesozoic marine reptiles ...
Plesiosaurs first appeared in the latest Triassic Period, possibly in the Rhaetian stage, about 203 million years ago. They became especially common during the Jurassic Period, thriving until their disappearance due to the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event at the end of the Cretaceous Period, about 66 million years ago. They had a worldwide oceanic distribution.
In the middle of the Jurassic, very large Pliosauridae evolved. These were characterized by a large head and a short neck, such as Liopleurodon and Simolestes. These forms had skulls up to three metres (ten feet) long and reached a length of up to seventeen metres (56 feet) and a weight of ten tonnes.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plesiosauria


Aristonectes: Plesiosaur
Late Cretaceous, 101-66 Ma
Length: 10 metres
Weight: 2 tonnes

Image: Plesiosaur Aristonectes

We have large sharks so why didn't this one survive? The sharks did.

And a very interesting quote about Plesiosaurs and Sharks

Plesiosauria
Late Triassic - Late Cretaceous, 203.6-66.0 Ma
Plesiosaurians varied in adult length from between 1.5 metres (4.9 ft) to about 15 metres (49 ft). The group thus contained some of the largest marine apex predators in the fossil record, roughly equalling the longest ichthyosaurs, mosasaurids, sharks and toothed whales in size. [emphasis mine]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plesiosauria#Size


Great White. The sharks survived so why didn’t the plesiosaurs?
Great White. The sharks survived so why didn’t the plesiosaurs?
Great White. The sharks survived so why didn’t the plesiosaurs?

Great White. The sharks survived so why didn’t the plesiosaurs?

So again, if the sharks survived, why didn't they?

Putting all of this together we get a very interesting question chart.


Image: Extinct Why? Survived Why?

If the mosasaurs went extinct, why didn't the snakes, salamanders and frogs?
If the small feathered non-avian dinosaurs went extinct, why didn't the birds?
If the large dinosaurs went extinct, why didn't the ancestors of the tortoises and crocodiles?
If the mosasaurs and plesiosaurs went extinct, why didn't the turtles and the sharks?

So far I believe that I had built a very interesting set of questions that the evolutionists would have a difficult time answering. But thus far they did have an out—simply saying well, yes a lot of the species of these animals did indeed go extinct with the dinosaurs, but there was still a small amount, supposedly 25% of all species that did survive and so we have them around today.

But this argument was about to disappear into the mists of time, never to return. Looking further into the actual extinction event itself I was about to turn a corner that was going to change everything. Forever.

What was it really all about?

So just what was the big extinction all about? What really brought about the supposed end of the dinosaurs?

Over the years many theories have been suggested for their demise. Straight-faced, with good intent.

From Aliens to Constipation.

From Aliens to Constipation?
From Aliens to Constipation?
From Aliens to Constipation?

From Aliens to Constipation?

Of course Aliens get a simple rejection.

And constipation? As strange as it sounds, this proposal actually does have some merit. Supposedly the plant life changed a bit and the herbivores couldn't adjust to the change and became constipated and they all died. And the carnivores then would follow suit.

Possible? Maybe. Likely? Probably not.

Two Main Theories

There have, however, been two major theories over the last forty years that have sort of thrashed it out with one of them only recently being considered the actual culprit with growing support from the fossils and rocks.

The Extinction of the Dinosaurs

Volcanic activity

vs

The Meteor Theory

So which one is it?

It's not Volcanic Activity. A Yale University research group has put the blame on the asteroid. [meteor]

"A lot of people have speculated that volcanoes mattered to K-Pg, and we're saying, 'no, they didn't," said Pincelli Hull, an assistant professor of geology and geophysics at Yale and lead author of the study, which published Thursday in Science.
"What our study does is take 40 years of research and adds a bunch of new research. It combines this in the most quantitative tests you can do and it really doesn't look like it (was the volcanoes)."

They found that at least 50% or more of the major outgassing from the Deccan Traps occurred well before the asteroid impact, and only the impact coincided with the mass extinction event.

"Volcanic activity in the late Cretaceous [period] caused a gradual global warming event of about two degrees, but not mass extinction," said Henehan, who compiled the paleotemperature records spanning the extinction event.

The researchers also examined cores of rock drawn from the sea floor, which showed when the asteroid hit.
"You can see impact — melted fragments of rock. It's really, really clear on these cores of rock," said Henehan.
So does this put the debate over what wiped out the dinosaurs to rest?
It should, says Hull.
https://edition.cnn.com/2020/01/16/world/dinosaur-extinction-volcanoes-asteroid-scn/index.html

In the late nineteen seventies two scientists, Luis and Walter Alvarez were investigating some rocks in the K-Pg boundary layers and noticed high levels of iridium, an element that was very common in meteors and not that common on Earth.


Luis, left, and his son Walter Alvarez, right, at the K-T [K-Pg] Boundary in Gubbio, Italy, 1981. Image:filler-trans Image:A Wyoming rock with an intermediate claystone layer that contains 1,000 times more iridium than the upper and lower layers. Picture taken at the San Diego Natural History Museum.

a. Luis, left, and his son Walter Alvarez, right, at the K-T [K-Pg] Boundary in Gubbio, Italy, 1981.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alvarez_hypothesis
b. A Wyoming rock with an intermediate claystone layer that contains 1,000 times more iridium than the upper and lower layers. Picture taken at the San Diego Natural History Museum.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cretaceous%E2%80%93Paleogene_extinction_event


Luis, left, and his son Walter Alvarez, right, at the K-T [K-Pg] Boundary in Gubbio, Italy, 1981. Image:filler-trans Image:A Wyoming rock with an intermediate claystone layer that contains 1,000 times more iridium than the upper and lower layers. Picture taken at the San Diego Natural History Museum.

a. Luis, left, and his son Walter Alvarez, right, at the K-T [K-Pg] Boundary in Gubbio, Italy, 1981.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alvarez_hypothesis
b. A Wyoming rock with an intermediate claystone layer that contains 1,000 times more iridium than the upper and lower layers. Picture taken at the San Diego Natural History Museum.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cretaceous%E2%80%93Paleogene_extinction_event


Luis, left, and his son Walter Alvarez, right, at the K-T [K-Pg] Boundary in Gubbio, Italy, 1981.

Luis, left, and his son Walter Alvarez, right, at the K-T [K-Pg] Boundary in Gubbio, Italy, 1981.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alvarez_hypothesis

Image:A Wyoming rock with an intermediate claystone layer that contains 1,000 times more iridium than the upper and lower layers. Picture taken at the San Diego Natural History Museum.

A Wyoming rock with an intermediate claystone layer that contains 1,000 times more iridium than the upper and lower layers. Picture taken at the San Diego Natural History Museum.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cretaceous%E2%80%93Paleogene_extinction_event

In 1980, a team of researchers led by Nobel prize-winning physicist Luis Alvarez, his son, geologist Walter Alvarez, and chemists Frank Asaro and Helen Vaughn Michel discovered that sedimentary layers found all over the world at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary (K-Pg boundary, formerly called Cretaceous-Tertiary or K-T boundary) contain a concentration of iridium hundreds of times greater than normal.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alvarez_hypothesis

The K-Pg boundary is the layer of rocks where the Cretaceous Period ends and the Paleogene begins and of course no more non-avian dinosaurs appear.

After checking similar layers in other locations and finding similar results they drew the conclusion that it may have been possible that a large meteor had slammed into the Earth at the K-Pg point or roughly 66 million years ago. The resulting destruction may have been the cause for the extinction of the dinosaurs.

The Alvarez team suggested that an asteroid struck the earth at the time of the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alvarez_hypothesis


The Meteor
The Meteor
The Meteor
Point of impact: The Chicxulub crater at the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico.

Most paleontologists rejected this hypothesis but over the years more evidence has been found in the rocks and fossils to support it.

In the 1990s an impact crater was found buried under thousands of feet of sediment in the Yucatán peninsula in Mexico. It was exactly the right age, and the right size, and named Chicxulub*, after a small Mayan town near the epicenter.
* pronounced [and my choice of a few]:
"Chik-shoo-loob"
http://dml.cmnh.org/2002Dec/msg00487.html

But as the years passed the evidence mounted, until, in a 1991 paper, the smoking gun was announced: the discovery of an impact crater buried under thousands of feet of sediment in the Yucatán peninsula, of exactly the right age, and of the right size and geochemistry, to have caused a worldwide cataclysm. The crater and the asteroid were named Chicxulub, after a small Mayan town near the epicenter.
https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2019/04/08/the-day-the-dinosaurs-died


Image:Location in the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico, near the town of Chicxulub. Note: circles may not be correct size for map.

Location in the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico, near the town of Chicxulub. Note: circles may not be correct size for map.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chicxulub_crater

Image:Location in the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico, near the town of Chicxulub. Note: circles may not be correct size for map.

Location in the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico, near the town of Chicxulub. Note: circles may not be correct size for map.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chicxulub_crater

Image:Location in the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico, near the town of Chicxulub. Note: circles may not be correct size for map.

Location in the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico, near the town of Chicxulub. Note: circles may not be correct size for map.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chicxulub_crater

Note: crater circles shown not to scale, just roughly where it is.

These days the theory has nearly world-wide acceptance among the scientific community.

most scientists now accept the Alvarez hypothesis.
https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2011/07/case-closed-dino-killer

In March 2010, an international panel of 41 scientists reviewed 20 years of scientific literature and endorsed the asteroid hypothesis, specifically the Chicxulub impact, as the cause of the extinction, ruling out other theories such as massive volcanism.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dinosaur_extinction

Several studies in 2020, like Hull et al. and Chiarenza et al. show quantitatively that the Cretaceous–Paleogene Mass Extinction about 66 million years ago was mostly a result of a meteorite impact (the Chicxulub impactor) and not a result of volcanism.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cretaceous%E2%80%93Paleogene_extinction_event

The technological age lends a hand

This is not something Darwin or other Evolutionists had available in the 1800s.

When the meteor theory was being considered various studies were done using massive supercomputers to model the effect of the impact.

Image:The age of supercomputers

The information gleaned from these supercomputer simulations is amazing:

A team of researchers has managed to run 3D models from the moment that the comet hit the surface of the Earth, until the 110-mile wide crater was fully formed.
The simulations were carried out by scientists at Imperial College in London, using high performance computing (HPC) facilities by Hewlett Packard Enterprise.

The simulations that turned out to be the most consistent with the structure of the Chicxulub crater showed an impact angle of about 60 degrees. Such a strike had the strength of about ten billion Hiroshima bombs, and this particular angle meant that rocks and sediments were ejected almost symmetrically.

This, in turn, caused a greater amount of climate-changing gases to be released, including billions of tonnes of sulphur that blocked the sun. The rest is history: firestorms, hurricanes, tsunamis and earthquakes rocked the planet, and most species disappeared from the surface of the Earth.
https://www.zdnet.com/article/supercomputer-simulates-the-impact-of-the-asteroid-that-wiped-out-dinosaurs/

And the suggested scenarios were quite horrific.

The Chicxulub impactor had an estimated diameter of 11-81 kilometers (6.8-50.3 mi), and delivered an estimated energy of 21-921 billion Hiroshima A-bombs
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chicxulub_crater

The impact had a kinetic energy of more than 10 billion megatonnes. This is a thousand times the amount of energy contained in all the world's nuclear weapons arsenals. p.254.
The Dinosaurs Rediscovered, MICHAEL J. BENTON, 2019.

The asteroid hit an area of carbonate rock containing a large amount of combustible hydrocarbons and sulphur, much of which was vaporized, thereby injecting sulfuric acid aerosols into the stratosphere, ... and would have caused acid rain. The resulting acidification of the oceans would kill many organisms that grow shells of calcium carbonate. … It would take at least ten years for such aerosols to dissipate, and would account for the extinction of plants and phytoplankton, and subsequently herbivores and their predators.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cretaceous%E2%80%93Paleogene_extinction_event#Effects_of_impact

Earth itself became toxic. When the asteroid struck, it vaporized layers of limestone, releasing into the atmosphere a trillion tons of carbon dioxide, ten billion tons of methane, and a billion tons of carbon monoxide; ... The impact also vaporized anhydrite rock, which blasted ten trillion tons of sulfur compounds aloft. The sulfur combined with water to form sulfuric acid, which then fell as an acid rain that may have been potent enough to strip the leaves from any surviving plants and to leach the nutrients from the soil.
https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2019/04/08/the-day-the-dinosaurs-died

Then acid rain, formed from the nitrous oxide and sulfates clogging the atmosphere, began to hammer down on the surface, killing plants and animals and even dissolving rocks. This rain would have been as corrosive as battery acid and its most devastating effect would have been to destroy the shells of small marine organisms. p.165.
Flying Dinosaurs: How fearsome reptiles became birds, John Pickrell, 2014.

The effects of the sulphuric acid on the climate was so severe that the computer simulations found it would have taken at least 30 years for the global climate to recover.
https://www.siliconrepublic.com/innovation/dinosaurs-extinction-simulation

All this is supposedly what killed the dinosaurs.

Not all evolutionists were happy with these scenarios.

Though the majority of evolutionists have jumped on the meteor bandwagon there is a small group I refer to as the discordant few who have voiced their disapproval of the meteor hypothesis and with good reason.

What do we do with these impact scenarios? Naturally, we compare them with the evidence from the geological record. Birds, tortoises, and mammals live on land and breathe air: the evidence from the K-T boundary shows that they survived the K-T boundary event. Therefore they and the air they breathed weren't set on broil for several hours. To put it simply, these scenarios did not happen.
History of Life, Richard Cowen, 2000.
https://ucmp.berkeley.edu/education/events/cowen2b.html


Image:Birds, Tortoises, Mammals: example 2 extant monotremes Image:Birds, Tortoises, Mammals: example 2 extant monotremes Image:Birds, Tortoises, Mammals: example 2 extant monotremes

Birds, Tortoises, Mammals: example 2 extant monotremes.

Image:Birds, Tortoises, Mammals: example 2 extant monotremes Image:Birds, Tortoises, Mammals: example 2 extant monotremes Image:Birds, Tortoises, Mammals: example 2 extant monotremes

Birds, Tortoises, Mammals: example 2 extant monotremes.

Image:Birds, Tortoises, Mammals: example 2 extant monotremes
Image:Birds, Tortoises, Mammals: example 2 extant monotremes Image:Birds, Tortoises, Mammals: example 2 extant monotremes

Birds, Tortoises, Mammals: example 2 extant monotremes.

The survival of birds is the strangest of all the K-T boundary events, if we are to accept the catastrophic scenarios. Smaller dinosaurs overlapped with larger birds in size and in ecological roles as terrestrial bipeds. How did birds survive while dinosaurs did not? Birds seek food in the open, by sight; they are small and warm-blooded, with high metabolic rates and small energy stores. Even a sudden storm or a slightly severe winter can cause high mortality among bird populations. Yet an impact scenario, according to its enthusiasts, includes "a nightmare of environmental disasters, including storms, tsunamis, cold and darkness, greenhouse warming, acid rains and global fires." There must be some explanation for the survival of birds, turtles, and crocodiles through any catastrophe of this scale, or else the catastrophe models are wrong.
History of Life, Richard Cowen, 2000.
https://ucmp.berkeley.edu/education/events/cowen3b.html


Image:Birds, Turtles, Crocodiles Image:Birds, Turtles, Crocodiles Image:Birds, Turtles, Crocodiles

Birds, Turtles, Crocodiles.

Image:Birds, Turtles, Crocodiles Image:Birds, Turtles, Crocodiles Image:Birds, Turtles, Crocodiles

Birds, Turtles, Crocodiles.

Image:Birds, Turtles, Crocodiles
Image:Birds, Turtles, Crocodiles Image:Birds, Turtles, Crocodiles

Birds, Turtles, Crocodiles.

Of the many great dinosaurian lineages, only the birds made it through the mass extinction at the end of the Cretaceous - but nobody is quite sure why. p.162.
Flying Dinosaurs: How fearsome reptiles became birds, John Pickrell, 2014.

Early members of the palaeognath lineage survived (the group that includes ostriches and emus), as did members of the wildfowl and gamebird lineage, as did members of the lineage that led to seabirds, hawks, perching birds, and so on.
Why these bird groups survived when other dinosaur groups didn't is a good question, and one that hasn't been answered satisfactorily. p.208.
Dinosaurs: How they lived and evolved. Darren Naish & Paul M. Barrett, CSIRO Publishing, 2018.

The theory is now widely accepted by the scientific community. Some critics, including paleontologist Robert Bakker, argue that such an impact would have killed frogs as well as dinosaurs, yet the frogs survived the extinction event.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chicxulub_crater


Image:Frogs

Frogs

Image:Frogs

Frogs

Image:Frogs

Frogs

there was no extinction in the insects, a group that should have been the most sensitive to a global catastrophe predicted by the impact advocates. ... Nor do the birds show much extinction, even though they too should have been vulnerable (Chiappe 1995). ...
some extreme impact scenarios postulate extensive acid rain bathing the earth for a long time after the impact. However, the survival of amphibians shows that this is simply a fantasy (Weil 1984). Amphibians breathe through their porous skins and are sensitive to slight changes in the acidity of their watery habitat. Even now, the slightly more acidic conditions of lakes and ponds due to human-induced acid rain are causing frogs and salamanders to die out rapidly. If the entire earth had been subjected to a huge acid bath, there simply would not be a frog or salamander alive on the earth today. p.38.
After the Dinosaurs, Donald R. Prothero, 2006.


Image:Frogs, Salamanders Image:Frogs, Salamanders

Frogs, Salamanders

Image:Frogs, Salamanders Image:Frogs, Salamanders

Frogs, Salamanders

Image:Frogs, Salamanders Image:Frogs, Salamanders

Frogs, Salamanders

SIMPLY A FANTASY!

some extreme impact scenarios postulate extensive acid rain bathing the earth for a long time after the impact. However, the survival of amphibians shows that this is simply a fantasy. p.38.
After the Dinosaurs, Donald R. Prothero, 2006.

So this Evolutionist is stating that the impact scenario for the meteor which includes acid rain bathing the earth is simply a fantasy because we still have frogs and salamanders.

And when we look at the birds, this gets even worse.

Why were canaries used in coal mines?

Canary
Canary
Canary
Bird: Canary. Very vulnerable to airborne poisons!

The idea of using canaries is credited to John Scott Haldane, known to some as "the father of oxygen therapy." His research on carbon monoxide led him to recommend using the birds, writes Esther Inglis-Arkell for Gizmodo. He suggested using a sentinel species: an animal more sensitive to the colorless, odorless carbon monoxide and other poisonous gases ...
Canaries, like other birds, are good early detectors of carbon monoxide because they’re vulnerable to airborne poisons, Inglis-Arkell writes.
https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/story-real-canary-coal-mine-180961570/

So just how would the birds have gone?

Earth itself became toxic. When the asteroid struck, it vaporized layers of limestone, releasing into the atmosphere a trillion tons of carbon dioxide, ten billion tons of methane, and a billion tons of carbon monoxide; ... The impact also vaporized anhydrite rock, which blasted ten trillion tons of sulfur compounds aloft. The sulfur combined with water to form sulfuric acid, which then fell as an acid rain
https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2019/04/08/the-day-the-dinosaurs-died


Birds are vulnerable to airborne poisons!!

Birds would have been one of the very first species to go extinct! Along with amphibians.

Before we draw a conclusion we need to complete the Model.

The model

Just what is the complete model here?

1. The rock layers

The asteroid or meteor [or comet]

Iridium found in rock layers supporting the theory.

as soon as DePalma started digging he noticed grayish-white specks in the layers which looked like grains of sand but which, under a hand lens, proved to be tiny spheres and elongated droplets. "I think, ... these look like microtektites!' DePalma recalled. Microtektites are the blobs of glass that form when molten rock is blasted into the air by an asteroid impact and falls back to Earth in a solidifying drizzle. The site appeared to contain microtektites by the million.
https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2019/04/08/the-day-the-dinosaurs-died

Shocked quartz granules, glass spherules and tektites, indicative of an impact event, are common in the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary, especially in deposits from around the Caribbean. All of these constituents are embedded in a layer of clay, which the Alvarez team interpreted as the debris spread all over the world by the impact.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alvarez_hypothesis

2. The Fossils

In a March 2019 article in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, an international team of twelve scientists revealed the contents of the Tanis fossil site discovered near Bowman, North Dakota ... the geology of the site is strewn with fossilized trees and remains of fish and other animals. ... Evidence correlating this find to the Chicxulub impact included tektites bearing "the unique chemical signature of other tektites associated with the Chicxulub event" found in the gills of fish fossils and embedded in amber
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chicxulub_crater

The block, DePalma said, contained a sturgeon and a paddlefish, along with dozens of smaller fossils ... The lower parts of the block consisted of debris, fragments of bone, and loose tektites that had been dislodged and caught up in the turbulence. … One fish was impaled on the other. The mouth of the paddlefish was agape, and jammed into its gill rakers were microtektites-sucked in by the fish as it tried to breathe.
https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2019/04/08/the-day-the-dinosaurs-died

3. The 150 km wide 20 km deep Chicxulub crater

research identified the giant Chicxulub crater, buried under Chicxulub on the coast of Yucatán, as the source of the K–Pg boundary clay. Identified in 1990 based on work by geophysicist Glen Penfield in 1978, the crater is oval, with an average diameter of roughly 180 km (110 mi), about the size calculated by the Alvarez team. The discovery of the crater—a prediction of the impact hypothesis—provided conclusive evidence for a K–Pg impact, and strengthened the hypothesis that it caused the extinction.

In a 2013 paper, Paul Renne of the Berkeley Geochronology Center dated the impact at 66.043±0.011 million years ago, based on argon–argon dating. He further posits that the mass extinction occurred within 32,000 years of this date.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cretaceous%E2%80%93Paleogene_extinction_event#Chicxulub_impact

The crater is estimated to be 150 kilometers (93 miles) in diameter and 20 kilometers (12 miles) in depth, well into the continental crust of the region of about 10–30 kilometers (6.2–18.6 miles) depth.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chicxulub_crater

In 2010, the scientific community concluded, based on overwhelming evidence, that the Chicxulub Impact Crater was the cause of the mass extinction.
https://blogs.unimelb.edu.au/sciencecommunication/2012/09/18/the-recent-resolution-on-the-k-pg-boundary/

So all the evidence for the meteor theory is actually part of the model.

The model is then:

1. The rock layers

2. The Fossils

and

3. The 150 km wide 20 km deep Chicxulub crater

Now remember what some of the dissenting Evolutionists were saying:

"these scenarios did not happen"

"the catastrophe models are wrong"

"this is simply a fantasy"

"there simply would not be a frog or salamander alive on the earth today"

Now think this through.

If the impact scenarios are a fantasy then the meteor theory is a fantasy.

If the meteor theory is a fantasy then so is the evidence supporting it.

This means that

1. The rock layers

2. The Fossils

and

3. The 150 km wide 20 km deep Chicxulub crater

are all a fantasy!

And just what does all this mean?

This means that...

1. The rock layers can no longer be considered to give a reliable record of the past of this planet;

2. The Fossils can no longer be considered to give a reliable record of the past life of this planet;

and

3. The 150 km wide 20 km deep Chicxulub crater can no longer be considered to give a reliable record of a meteor impact that supposedly happened 66 million years ago.

A complete load of junk

So just where did all this stuff come from? It would appear that when this world came into existence, someone or some thing added many thousands of feet of layers of rock full of all sorts of junk: fossils, varying ages, magnetic reversals, ice ages, various extinctions, etc. And a very curious structure of life starting from some chemical soup and progressively getting more complex, until we eventually arrive at the very penultimate of supposedly 4 billion years of evolution, Man!

And it's all complete junk. A complete fabrication.

And just who or what would have done this? A far more interesting question is just who or what would have the actual power to be able to do this.

Has any one or thing claimed they have made this world?

This is an act of creation. There's no 4.6 billion years here. That time scale is part of the fabrication.

This world may actually only be about 6000 years old.

This is not the result of random evolution taking billions of years. The only way this could have come about is from a direct act of some living being or entity. An act of creation at this level would require the ability of a deity, something completely outside the scope of evolutionary science!

Has any deity actually stated they have the ability to do this?

We find in Isaiah 45:

Thus says the LORD, the Holy One of Israel, and his Maker: "Will you question me about my children, or command me concerning the work of my hands?
I made the earth, and created man upon it; it was my hands that stretched out the heavens, and I commanded all their host. Isaiah 45:11,12 RSV.


Image:I made the earth, and created man upon it; it was my hands that stretched out the heavens, and I commanded all their host. Isaiah 45:11,12 RSV.

"I made the earth, and created man upon it; it was my hands that stretched out the heavens, and I commanded all their host"

The God of the Bible has made this claim!

The evidence from the rocks strongly suggest that they were fabricated. This is an act of creation which in its simplest form would require a deity. When we ask, has a deity said They made this earth?, the reply from the Bible is:

"I made the earth" Isaiah 45:12.

A dead simple question with a dead simple answer. The evolutionists may not want to agree but this is really an open-and-shut case. End of story. Case closed. That sort of thing.

Appearance of Age similarity

Though fundamentally different the approach here is not dissimilar from the Appearance of Age theory.

The appearance of age is certainly not without its controversy or opponents. Perhaps the most common objection to the appearance of age is the argument that it makes God a deceiver. This argument is made by old earth creationist Hugh Ross in his book A Matter of Days. Ross believes that God does not deceive mankind and that creating with an appearance of age would violate God's fundamental nature (Ross 2004:86). In other words, Ross asks proponents of appearance of age why God would do something that would lead humans to believe something that is false.
http://apps.usd.edu/esci/creation/age/content/creationism_and_young_earth/appearance_of_age.html

Why would God do this?

The answer to that question is ridiculously simple.

Because He said He would.

If the evolutionists had read their Bibles they would have found:

For the time will come when they will not endure sound doctrine; but after their own lusts shall they heap to themselves teachers, having itching ears;
And they shall turn away their ears from the truth, and shall be turned unto fables. 2 Timothy 4:3,4 KJV.

And for this cause God shall send them strong delusion, that they should believe a lie: 2 Thessalonians 2:11 KJV.

Note that it is God that this delusion is from. No one else could have done this. The added thousands of feet of layers of rock around this planet is an act of creation. Most likely happening in the opening moments of day 1 of Creation Week.

So I have gone full circle. From believing that God may have created the dinosaurs, to not creating them, and finally back to creating them. Just not the standard way.

THE GREATEST HOAX IN THE WORLD

The dinosaurs were not created along with all the other animals. They were created in the opening moments of Creation Week fabricated in the rocks as fossil constructions. Not as fossil remains as they NEVER existed as living breathing animals. They ONLY existed as fossil constructions in the rocks along with all the other fossils around the world as part of a world wide delusion or hoax perpetrated by God Himself!

God is the Master Hoaxer

Image:God is the Master Hoaxer and this is the greatest hoax in the world!

and this is the greatest hoax in the world!

Amen.


REFERENCES

Some google search results may be mixed in with the general references. I also noticed over time small adjustments can occur in the wikipedia quotes.

KT, K-T, K-Pg extinction event. All the same. K-T was the terminology for Cretaceous-Tertiary. Tertiary is no longer used and other periods are now used starting with Paleogene or Pg for short, hence K-Pg. Old articles will have K-T and newer ones K-Pg.

Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event
The Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) extinction event (also known as the Cretaceous–Tertiary (K–T) extinction) was a sudden mass extinction of three-quarters of the plant and animal species on Earth, approximately 66 million years ago.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cretaceous%E2%80%93Paleogene_extinction_event

Because of its magnitude, scientists have speculated that the gases released during the formation of the Deccan Traps played a major role in the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event (also known as the Cretaceous-Tertiary or K-T extinction).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deccan_Traps

Gya, Bya, Byr, Ma, Myr etc convention controversy
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Billion_years
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Myr

ALVAREZs
PUBLIC DOMAIN

CHARLES DARWIN
Public Domain

GEOLOGICAL TIME COLUMN
Public Domain

HUMAN EVOLUTION
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Human_evolution_scheme.svg
Attribution: M. Garde
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en

DINOSAUR TRACKS
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dinosaur_footprints_(Dakota_Sandstone,_Lower_Cretaceous;_Dinosaur_Ridge,_Colorado,_USA)_6_(21589195623).jpg
Dinosaur tracksite in the Cretaceous of Colorado, USA.
Attribution: James St. John
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license.

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dinosaur_Footprints_found_in_the_Chewore_Hunting_area_of_Zimbabwe_03.JPG
Dinosaur Footprints found in the Chewore Hunting area of Zimbabwe.
Attribution: David17101944
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International license.
INFO

Earth: The Science Behind the Headlines
Travels in Geology: To the top of Europe: Jungfrau, Switzerland
Naomi Lubick Friday, November 12, 2010
https://www.earthmagazine.org/article/travels-geology-top-europe-jungfrau-switzerland

DINOSAUR NESTS

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_dinosaur_book_-_the_ruling_reptiles_and_their_relatives_(1945)_(20964195881).jpg
A nest of eggs of Protoceratops from Mongolia.
Author Internet Archive Book Images
NO KNOWN COPYRIGHT RESTRICTIONS

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dinosaur_eggs_-_Kunming_Natural_History_Museum_of_Zoology_-_DSC02394.JPG
Fossil exhibit in the Kunming Natural History Museum of Zoology, Kunming, Yunnan, China.
Author Daderot
PUBLIC DOMAIN

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Maiasaurusnest.jpg
credit to en:user:Ovulator
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.
INFO

15 Infant Dinosaurs Discovered Crowded in Nest
Charles Choi
November 18, 2011

A nest of 15 young dinosaurs uncovered in Mongolia — cousins of Triceratops — now suggests these plant-eating beasts might have cared for their young, scientists reveal.

The dinosaur is named Protoceratops andrewsi, a sheep-size herbivore that lived about 70 million years ago that's known for the frill at the back of its head. Within the nest were infants about 4 to 6 inches (10 to 15 centimeters) long and probably no more than a year old.
https://news.yahoo.com/15-infant-dinosaurs-discovered-crowded-nest-161409482.html

EARTH / CREATION

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_Earth_seen_from_Apollo_17.jpg
Author: NASA/Apollo 17 crew; taken by either Harrison Schmitt or Ron Evans
"The Blue Marble" is a famous photograph of the Earth taken on December 7, 1972, by the crew of the Apollo 17 spacecraft en route to the Moon at a distance of about 29,000 kilometres (18,000 mi). It shows Africa, Antarctica, and the Arabian Peninsula.
Public Domain

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cosmic_%E2%80%98Winter%E2%80%99_Wonderland.jpg
Although there are no seasons in space, this cosmic vista invokes thoughts of a frosty winter landscape. It is, in fact, a region called NGC 6357 where radiation from hot, young stars is energizing the cooler gas in the cloud that surrounds them.
Public Domain

https://www.freebibleimages.org/illustrations/creation/
Then God said, ‘Let us make man in our image to be the master of all life upon the earth, skies and the seas.’ God formed a man from the dust of the ground and breathed life into his nostrils. The man became a living being. – Slide 12

God creates the heavens and earth

The original illustrations are the copyright of Sweet Publishing and these digitally adjusted compilations of them the copyright of FreeBibleimages. They are made available for free download under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported license.
Individual images can be used on web pages, blogs and social media with attribution to Sweet Publishing / FreeBibleimages.org.
You can create a link to the relevant page on FreeBibleimages.org to allow others to download sets of these images under the same Terms of Download.
Downloaded pictures can be used in the retelling of Bible stories and narrative that are faithful to the Biblical account. They are not to be used in any context where the accompanying message is undermining of the Christian faith and gospel.

K-Pg BOUNDARY
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:K-T-boundary.JPG
The intermediate claystone layer contains 1000 times more iridium than the upper and lower layers. It is the boundary between Cretaceous and Tertiary Periods. Picture taken by the author at San Diego Natural History Museum. The rock is from Wyoming, USA.
Attribution: Zimbres
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.

METEOR etc

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chicxulub_impact_-_artist_impression.jpg
Chicxulub impact site
This painting by Donald E. Davis depicts an asteroid slamming into tropical, shallow seas of the sulfur-rich Yucatan Peninsula in what is today southeast Mexico. The aftermath of this immense asteroid collision, which occurred approximately 65 million years ago, is believed to have caused the extinction of the dinosaurs and many other species on Earth. The impact spewed hundreds of billions of tons of sulfur into the atmosphere, producing a worldwide blackout and freezing temperatures which persisted for at least a decade. Shown in this painting are pterodactyls, flying reptiles with wingspans of up to 50 feet, gliding above low tropical clouds.
Author Donald E. Davis
PUBLIC DOMAIN

THE NEW YORKER
Annals of the Former World
April 8, 2019 Issue
The Day the Dinosaurs Died
A young paleontologist may have discovered a record of the most significant event in the history of life on Earth.
By Douglas Preston
March 29, 2019
https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2019/04/08/the-day-the-dinosaurs-died

SUPERCOMPUTERS

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sequoia6.1000pix.jpg
IBM Sequoia
Author Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
PUBLIC DOMAIN

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Earth_Simulator_3_PB111950.jpg
Racks of computational nodes of Earth Simulator (third generation). Photographed on the open house day of JAMSTEC Yokohama Institute for Earth Sciences.
Attribution: Kestrel
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International license.

Yellowstone [as of 2014]
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:NSF-supported_Research_Facilities_(15947776872).jpg
With NSF support, the NCAR-Wyoming Supercomputer Center (NWSC) in Cheyenne, Wyo., houses high performance computers, mass storage (data archival) systems and related systems and infrastructure. The center is operated by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). The center’s flagship supercomputer, known as Yellowstone, has the ability to work at 1.5 petaflops, equal to 1.5 quadrillion (a million billion) mathematical operations per second. Researchers use the supercomputer to advance scientific understanding of climate change, severe weather, air quality, and other atmospheric and geosciences challenges. This is a view of some of Yellowstone’s 100 racks.
Author National Science Foundation
PUBLIC DOMAIN

CREATURES, ANIMALS ETC

AERODACTYLUS
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Aerodactylus_scolopaciceps.jpg
Attribution: Nobu Tamura
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license.

ANKYLOSAURUS
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:202007_Ankylosaurus_magniventris.svg
Attribution: DataBase Center for Life Science (DBCLS)
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.

ANSERIMIMUS

Anserimimus
Temporal range: Late Cretaceous, 70 Ma
Clade: Dinosauria
Family: Ornithomimidae
Anserimimus (/ˌænsərɪˈmaɪməs/ AN-sər-i-MY-məs; "goose mimic") is a genus of ornithomimid theropod dinosaur, from the Late Cretaceous Period of what is now Mongolia.
Anserimimus was a medium-sized ornithomimosaurian. Gregory S. Paul in 2010 estimated its length at three metres, its weight at fifty kilogrammes.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anserimimus

Anserimimus
Pronunciation: ANN-ser-ih-mee-muss
Name meaning: 'goose mimic'
When it lived: Late Cretaceous, 84-65 million years ago
Found in: Mongolia
Type of dinosaur: large theropod
Length: 3.5m
The Natural History Museum, London
https://www.nhm.ac.uk/discover/dino-directory/anserimimus.html

Anserimimus Barsbold 1988 (ornithomimid)
Age range: 70.6 to 66.043 Ma
http://fossilworks.org/

But have no pic.
Using pic of ornithomimid Qiupalong:
Great pic from
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Qiupalong_Restoration.png
Life restoration of an individual of the (apparently) North American ornithomimids Qiupalong. The holotype was found in Asia dating to the Maastrichtian stage, however, several older findings indicate that the species originated in North American and radiated to Asia.
Attribution: PaleoNeolitic
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.

Qiupalong
Temporal range: Late Cretaceous, 76.5–66 Ma
Clade: Dinosauria
Family: Ornithomimidae
Qiupalong is a genus of extinct ornithomimid theropods from the Late Cretaceous of what is now China and Canada.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qiupalong

BIRDS

Bird
Temporal range:
Early Cretaceous (Aptian) – Present, 121–0 Ma

Birds are a group of feathered theropod dinosaurs, and constitute the only living dinosaurs. Likewise, birds are considered reptiles in the modern cladistic sense of the term, and their closest living relatives are the crocodilians. Birds are descendants of the primitive avialans (whose members include Archaeopteryx) which first appeared about 160 million years ago (mya) in China. According to DNA evidence, modern birds (Neornithes) evolved in the Middle to Late Cretaceous, and diversified dramatically around the time of the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event 66 mya, which killed off the pterosaurs and all non-avian dinosaurs.

Dinosaurs and the origin of birds

Based on fossil and biological evidence, most scientists accept that birds are a specialised subgroup of theropod dinosaurs, and more specifically, they are members of Maniraptora, a group of theropods which includes dromaeosaurids and oviraptorosaurs, among others.

The Late Jurassic Archaeopteryx is well known as one of the first transitional fossils to be found, and it provided support for the theory of evolution in the late 19th century.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bird

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Domestic_canary_2.jpg
A yellow domestic canary on a cage.
Attribution: Yavor Uzunov
Public Domain

Other bird pics
https://www.publicdomainpictures.net
Public domain

BOROGOVIA

Borogovia
Temporal range: Late Cretaceous, 70 Ma
Clade: Dinosauria
Family: Troodontidae
Borogovia is a troodontid theropod dinosaur genus which lived during the Late Cretaceous Period, in what is now Mongolia.
Borogovia is about two meters (6 feet) long, weighing some twenty kilograms (forty-five pounds).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Borogovia

Borogovia
Pronunciation: bor-o-goh-vee-a
Name meaning: 'borogove'
When it lived: Late Cretaceous, 84-65 million years ago
Found in: Mongolia
Type of dinosaur: small theropod
Length: 1.5m
The Natural History Museum, London
https://www.nhm.ac.uk/discover/dino-directory/borogovia.html

Borogovia Osmolska 1987 (coelurosaur)
PaleoDB taxon number: 64790
Age range: 84.9 to 66.043 Ma
http://fossilworks.org/

The Natural History Museum, London gives the Borogovia length as 1.5m and an approximate weight would then be 8.5 kg ??? Leave at 2 m.

Use pic of a troodontid
Stenonychosaurus
Temporal range: Campanian, 76 Ma
Clade: Dinosauria
Family: Troodontidae
Stenonychosaurus (meaning "narrow claw lizard") is a genus of troodontid dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous Dinosaur Park Formation of Alberta, Canada, as well as possibly the Two Medicine Formation.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stenonychosaurus

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hand_drawn_Troodon.jpg
Life restoration of Stenonychosaurus inequalis
Attribution: IJReid
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.

CROCODYLOMORPHA
Temporal range: Late Triassic–Recent, 235–0 Ma

Crocodylomorpha is a group of archosaurs that includes the crocodilians and their extinct relatives.
"Modern" crocodilians did not appear until the Late Cretaceous.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crocodylomorpha

Crocodilia
Temporal range: Late Cretaceous – Recent 83.5–0 Ma

Crocodilia (or Crocodylia, both /krɒkəˈdɪliə/) is an order of mostly large, predatory, semiaquatic reptiles, known as crocodilians. …
The order Crocodilia includes the true crocodiles (family Crocodylidae), the alligators and caimans (family Alligatoridae), and the gharial and false gharial (family Gavialidae). Although the term 'crocodiles' is sometimes used to refer to all of these, crocodilians is a less ambiguous vernacular term for members of this group.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crocodilia

Crocodile
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nile_croc_couple_690V1510_-_Flickr_-_Lip_Kee.jpg
Attribution: Lip Kee from Singapore, Republic of Singapore
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic license.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Chenanisuchus_BW.jpg
Chenanisuchus lateroculi was a short-snouted dyrosaurid crocodylomorph from the Late Paleocene of Morocco
Attribution: Nobu Tamura
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license.
INFO
Chenanisuchus
Temporal range: Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) - Paleocene

Chenanisuchus ("Chenane crocodile") is a genus of dyrosaurid crocodyliform from the Late Cretaceous of Mali and the Late Palaeocene of Sidi Chenane in Morocco.
Chenanisuchus lateroculi has an estimated adult length between 4 and 4.5 meters, based on the 60 centimeter long skull.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chenanisuchus

Chenanisuchus lateroculi has an estimated adult length between 4 and 4.5 meters, based on the 60 centimeter long skull.
https://fossil.fandom.com/wiki/Chenanisuchus
Length 4.5 m
Weight guesstimate using American alligator: 570 kg

The largest American alligator scientifically verified in Florida for the period from 1977 to 1993 was reportedly 4.23 m (13 ft 11 in) and weighed 473 kg (1,043 lb)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_alligator

Crocodyliformes
Temporal range: Late Triassic–Recent, 225–0 Ma

Crocodyliformes is a clade of crurotarsan archosaurs, the group often traditionally referred to as "crocodilians". They are the first members of Crocodylomorpha to possess many of the features that define later relatives.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crocodyliformes

DASPLETOSAURUS
https://dino.wikia.org/wiki/Daspletosaurus
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Daspletosaurus_torosus_steveoc_flipped.jpg
Attribution Steveoc 86 at English Wikipedia
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.5 Generic license.

DINOSAUR

“The fossil record shows that birds are modern feathered dinosaurs”

Dinosaur
Temporal range: Late Triassic–Present, 233.23 – 0 Mya (Range includes birds (Aves))

Dinosaurs are a diverse group of reptiles of the clade Dinosauria. They first appeared during the Triassic period, between 243 and 233.23 million years ago, although the exact origin and timing of the evolution of dinosaurs is the subject of active research. They became the dominant terrestrial vertebrates after the Triassic–Jurassic extinction event 201.3 million years ago; their dominance continued throughout the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods. The fossil record shows that birds are modern feathered dinosaurs, having evolved from earlier theropods during the Late Jurassic epoch, and are the only dinosaur lineage to survive the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event approximately 66 million years ago. Dinosaurs can therefore be divided into avian dinosaurs, or birds; and the extinct non-avian dinosaurs, which are all dinosaurs other than birds.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dinosaur

DIPLODOCUS
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:202005_Diplodocus_carnegii.svg
Attribution: DataBase Center for Life Science (DBCLS)
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.

DUCK-BILLED PLATYPUS
see Monotremes.

ECHIDNA
see Monotremes.

FROG
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Litoria_phyllochroa.JPG
Author User:Froggydarb
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.
INFO:
Early Jurassic – Present, 200–0 Ma

A frog is any member of a diverse and largely carnivorous group of short-bodied, tailless amphibians composing the order Anura (literally without tail in Ancient Greek). The oldest fossil "proto-frog" appeared in the early Triassic of Madagascar, but molecular clock dating suggests their origins may extend further back to the Permian, 265 million years ago.
They are also seen as environmental bellwethers, with declines in frog populations often viewed as early warning signs of environmental damage.
For the skin to serve as a respiratory organ, it must remain moist. This makes frogs susceptible to various substances they may encounter in the environment, some of which may be toxic and can dissolve in the water film and be passed into their bloodstream. This may be one of the causes of the worldwide decline in frog populations.
Many environmental scientists believe amphibians, including frogs, are good biological indicators of broader ecosystem health
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frog

HEYUANNIA

Heyuannia
Pronunciation: Hey-YOU-ARN-ee-ah
Name meaning: 'from [the city of] Heyuan'
When it lived: Late Cretaceous, 72-68 million years ago
Found in: Mongolia
Type of dinosaur: small theropod
Length: 2.0m
The Natural History Museum, London
https://www.nhm.ac.uk/discover/dino-directory/heyuannia.html

Heyuannia
Temporal range: Late Cretaceous, 70–66 Ma
Clade: Dinosauria
Clade: Theropoda
Family: Oviraptoridae
Heyuannia ("from Heyuan") is a genus of oviraptorid dinosaur that lived during the Late Cretaceous Period in China.
Heyuannia is a medium-sized oviraptorid. Gregory S. Paul in 2010 estimated its length at 1.5 metres, the weight at twenty kilograms.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heyuannia

Heyuannia Lü 2003 (coelurosaur)
Age range: 70.6 to 66.043 Ma
http://fossilworks.org/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Heyuannia_and_eggs_nest.jpg
Life restoration of Heyuannia with its nest of eggs
Attribution: Danny Cicchetti
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International license.

LEPTOCERATOPS

Leptoceratops
Pronunciation: lep-toh-ker-ah-tops
Name meaning: 'slim horned face'
When it lived: Late Cretaceous, 67-65 million years ago
Found in: Canada, USA
Type of dinosaur: ceratopsian
Length: 3.0m
The Natural History Museum, London
https://www.nhm.ac.uk/discover/dino-directory/leptoceratops.html

Leptoceratops
Temporal range: Late Cretaceous, 68.8–66 Ma
Leptoceratops (meaning 'Thin-horned face' and derived from Greek lepto-/λεπτο- meaning 'small', 'insignificant', 'slender', 'meagre' or 'lean', kerat-/κερατ- meaning 'horn' and -ops/ωψ meaning face), is a genus of primitive ceratopsian dinosaurs from the late Cretaceous Period (late Maastrichtian age, 68.8-66 Ma ago) of what is now Western North America.
Leptoceratops was around 2 metres (6.6 ft) long and could have weighed between 68 to 200 kilograms (150 to 441 lb).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leptoceratops

Leptoceratopsid is more correct.

Leptoceratops Brown 1914 (leptoceratopsid)
Age range: 70.6 to 66.043 Ma
http://fossilworks.org/

Ceratopsia
Temporal range: Late Jurassic – Late Cretaceous, 161–66 Ma
Clade: Dinosauria
Suborder: Ceratopsia
Subgroups
Leptoceratopsidae
Ceratopsia or Ceratopia (/ˌsɛrəˈtɒpsiə/ or /ˌsɛrəˈtoʊpiə/; Greek: "horned faces") is a group of herbivorous, beaked dinosaurs that thrived in what are now North America, Europe, and Asia, during the Cretaceous Period, although ancestral forms lived earlier, in the Jurassic.
Ceratopsians ranged in size from 1 meter (3 ft) and 23 kilograms (50 lb) to over 9 meters (30 ft) and 9,100 kg (20,100 lb).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ceratopsia

and using ceratopsian 9 m and 9100 kg we approximate 100 kg for 2 m length..

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Leptoceratops_BW.jpg
Leptoceratops gracilis, a ceratopsian from the Late Cretaceous of North America, pencil drawing, digital coloring
Attribution: Nobu Tamura
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license.

Prefer a better pic. Try generic Leptoceratopsid and ended up with:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Zhuchengceratops_NT.jpg
Zhuchengceratops
Attribution: NobuTamura
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.

Zhuchengceratops
Temporal range: Maastrichtian~70 Ma
Clade: Dinosauria
Family: Leptoceratopsidae
Zhuchengceratops is a genus of extinct leptoceratopsid ceratopsian that lived during the Upper Cretaceous of modern-day China.
The recovered specimen of Zhuchengceratops likely represents an adult, and is slightly larger than most adults of the similar ceratopsian Leptoceratops, which was around 2 meters in length.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zhuchengceratops

MAIASAURUS

Maiasaura
Temporal range: Late Cretaceous, 76.7 Ma

Maiasaura (from the Greek "μαία" and the feminine form of Latin saurus, meaning "good mother reptile" or "good mother lizard") is a large herbivorous hadrosaurid ("duck-billed") dinosaur genus that lived in the area currently covered by the state of Montana in the Upper Cretaceous Period (mid to late Campanian), about 76.7 million years ago.

The first fossils of Maiasaura were discovered in 1978. The genus was named in 1979. The name refers to the find of nests with eggs, embryos and young animals, in a nesting colony.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maiasaura

MONOTREMES

Platypus + Echidna pics
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Monotreme_collage.jpg
Four of the five extant monotreme species: platypus (top-left), short-beaked echidna (top-right), western long-beaked echidna (bottom-left), and replica eastern long-beaked echidna (bottom-right).
Constituent files:
File:Platypus BrokenRiver QLD Australia.jpg
File:Long-beakedEchidna.jpg
File:Echidna in the Karawatha Forest - Radford.jpg
File:Zaglossus bartoni - MUSE.JPG
Attribution: Ypna
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International license.
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.en

Monotremes
Temporal range: Early Cretaceous-Recent
[pic]
Four of the five extant monotreme species: platypus (top-left), short-beaked echidna (top-right), western long-beaked echidna (bottom-left), and replica eastern long-beaked echidna (bottom-right)
Monotremes (/ˈmɒnətriːmz/, from Greek μονός, monos ('single') and τρῆμα, trema ('hole'), referring to the cloaca) are one of the three main groups of living mammals, along with placentals (Eutheria) and marsupials (Metatheria).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monotreme

The platypus is one of the few monotremes still in existence today. The egg-laying mammal was only recently discovered to have lived during the Jurassic period. After analyzing a Teinolophos jawbone in 2008, University of Texas paleontologist Tim Rowe discovered that platypuses dated back as far as 122 million years ago.
Platypuses are one of only two mammalian species that lay eggs, the other being echidnas, or spiny anteaters.
https://www.huffpost.com/entry/animals-as-old-as-dinosaurs_n_6982300

Teinolophos
Temporal range: Aptian ~120–113 Ma
Teinolophos is a prehistoric species of monotreme, or egg-laying mammal. It is known from four specimens, each consisting of a partial lower jawbone collected from the Wonthaggi Formation at Flat Rocks, Victoria, Australia. It lived during the Aptian age of the Lower Cretaceous.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teinolophos

Platypus
Evolution, paleontology, and classification
Aquatically adapted platypus-like monotremes probably evolved from a more-generalized terrestrial monotreme. The first occurrence in the fossil record of a platypus-like monotreme is from about 110 million years ago, in the early Cretaceous Period, when Australia was still connected to South America by Antarctica.
https://www.britannica.com/animal/platypus

MOSASAUR
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mosasaurus_missouriensis_NT.png
Life reconstruction of Mosasaurus missouriensis
Attribution: Nobu Tamura
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International license.
INFO
Mosasaur
Temporal range: Late Cretaceous, 101–66 Ma

Mosasaurs (from Latin Mosa meaning the 'Meuse', and Greek σαύρος sauros meaning 'lizard') comprise a group of extinct, large marine reptiles containing 40 genera in total.
Mosasaurus hoffmannii, the largest known species, may have reached up to 17 m (56 ft) in length. Currently, the largest publicly exhibited mosasaur skeleton in the world is on display at the Canadian Fossil Discovery Centre in Morden, Manitoba. The specimen, nicknamed "Bruce", is just over 13 m (43 ft) long.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mosasaur

Length: 10 – 18 m
Mass: 14,000 kg
Google

So Bruce, at 13 m, would be approx 5274 kg or 5.3 tonnes.

NOASAURUS

Noasaurus
Pronunciation: noh-ah-sore-us
Name meaning: 'northwestern Argentina lizard'
When it lived: Late Cretaceous, 84-65 million years ago
Found in: Argentina
Type of dinosaur: small theropod
Length: 1.0m
The Natural History Museum, London
https://www.nhm.ac.uk/discover/dino-directory/noasaurus.html

Noasaurus
Temporal range: Late Cretaceous, 70 Ma
Clade: Dinosauria
Family: Noasauridae
Noasaurus ("Northwestern Argentina lizard") is a genus of ceratosaurian theropod dinosaur genus from the late Campanian-Maastrichtian (Late Cretaceous) of Argentina.
Noasaurus was a small theropod. Gregory S.Paul estimated its length at 1.5 meters (5 ft), its weight at 15 kg (33 lbs).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noasaurus

Noasaurus Bonaparte and Powell 1980 (ceratosaur)
Age range: 70.6 to 66.043 Ma
http://fossilworks.org/

use pic of

Noasaurid
Masiakasaurus
Temporal range: Late Cretaceous, 70 Ma
Family: Noasauridae
Masiakasaurus is a genus of small predatory theropod dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Masiakasaurus

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Masiakasaurus_BW_(flipped).jpg
Masiakasaurus knopfleri, a small noasaurid theropod from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar, pencil drawing
Attribution: Nobu Tamura
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.

PLATYPUS
see Monotremes

PLESIOSAUR
https://reptilepedia.fandom.com/wiki/Plesiosaurus
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Paleo_Hall_at_HMNS_plesiosaur.jpg
Description Paleo Hall at HMNS
Date 22 August 2013, 15:18
Source Paleo Hall at HMNS
Uploaded by FunkMonk
Author Kim Alaniz

INFO
Plesiosauria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Plesiosaur)
Temporal range: Late Triassic - Late Cretaceous, 203.6–66.0 Ma

The Plesiosauria (/ˌpliːsiəˈsɔːriə, -zi-/; Greek: πλησίος, plesios, meaning "near to" and sauros, meaning "lizard") or plesiosaurs are an order or clade of extinct Mesozoic marine reptiles (marine Sauropsida), belonging to the Sauropterygia.

Plesiosaurs first appeared in the latest Triassic Period, possibly in the Rhaetian stage, about 203 million years ago. They became especially common during the Jurassic Period, thriving until their disappearance due to the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event at the end of the Cretaceous Period, about 66 million years ago. They had a worldwide oceanic distribution.
In the middle of the Jurassic, very large Pliosauridae evolved. These were characterized by a large head and a short neck, such as Liopleurodon and Simolestes. These forms had skulls up to three metres (ten feet) long and reached a length of up to seventeen metres (56 feet) and a weight of ten tonnes.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plesiosauria

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Aristonectes_NT_small.jpg
Attribution: Nobu Tamura
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International license.
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Aristonectes_Scale.svg
Author User:Slate Weasel
PUBLIC DOMAIN
gives length as approx 10 m.
INFO
Aristonectes
Temporal range: Maastrichtian ~70–66 Ma

Aristonectes (meaning 'best swimmer') is an extinct genus of plesiosaur from the Late Cretaceous
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aristonectes
Using above info we can approximate the weight as: 2 tonnes.

PTERODACTYL
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Pterodactylus_BMMS7_life.png
Attribution: Matthew Martyniuk
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International license.
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.en

SALAMANDER
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:SpottedSalamander.jpg
Author Camazine at English Wikipedia) (Scott Camazine)
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.
INFO:
Late Jurassic – Present, 160–0 Ma
Salamanders are a group of amphibians typically characterized by a lizard-like appearance, with slender bodies, blunt snouts, short limbs projecting at right angles to the body, and the presence of a tail in both larvae and adults. All 10 present-day salamander families are grouped together under the order Urodela.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salamander

SECERNOSAURUS

Secernosaurus
Pronunciation: see-ser-noh-sore-us
Name meaning: 'separated lizard'
When it lived: Late Cretaceous, 71-65 million years ago
Found in: Argentina
Type of dinosaur: euornithopod
Length: 3.0m
The Natural History Museum, London
https://www.nhm.ac.uk/discover/dino-directory/secernosaurus.html

Secernosaurus
Temporal range: Late Cretaceous, 85–66 Ma
Clade: Dinosauria
Family: Hadrosauridae
Secernosaurus (meaning "severed lizard") is a genus of herbivorous dinosaur. Secernosaurus was a hadrosaur, a "duck-billed" dinosaur which lived during the Late Cretaceous.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Secernosaurus

Secernosaurus Brett-Surman 1979 (hadrosaurid)
Age range: 84.9 to 66.043 Ma
http://fossilworks.org/

Hadrosaurus
Temporal range: Late Cretaceous,~80–78 Ma
Clade: Dinosauria
Family: Hadrosauridae
Hadrosaurus (/ˌhædrəˈsɔːrəs/; meaning "bulky lizard") is a genus of hadrosaurid ornithopod dinosaurs that lived in North America during the Late Cretaceous Period in what is now the Woodbury Formation about 80 million to 78 million years ago.
They were large animals ranging from 7 to 8 m (23 to 26 ft) and 2 to 4 t (2,000 to 4,000 kg).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hadrosaurus

Brachylophosaurus (/brəˌkɪləfoʊˈsɔːrəs/ brə-KIL-ə-fo-SAWR-əs or /ˌbrækiˌloʊfəˈsɔːrəs/ brak-i-LOH-fə-SAWR-əs; meaning "short-crested lizard", Greek brachys = short + lophos = crest + sauros = lizard, referring to its small crest) was a mid-sized member of the hadrosaurid family of dinosaurs.
Brachylophosaurus was a typical hadrosaur which reached an adult length of at least 9 metres (30 ft). In 2010, Gregory S. Paul estimated maximum length at 11 metres (36 ft) resulting in weight of 7 metric tons (7.7 short tons).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brachylophosaurus

Unfortunately using a hadrosaur weight of 7000 kg and length 11 m gives approx 140 kg. A bit big? Probably a bit small for a dinosaur so still could use. Large dinosaurs are 1 tonne and upward. This is still a small dinosaur.

Look at hadrosaurids for a pic:
Hadrosauridae
Hadrosaurids
Temporal range: Late Cretaceous, 86–66 Ma
Clade: Dinosauria
Family: Hadrosauridae
Hadrosaurids (Greek: ἁδρός, hadrós, "stout, thick"), or duck-billed dinosaurs, are members of the ornithischian family Hadrosauridae. This group is known as the duck-billed dinosaurs for the flat duck-bill appearance of the bones in their snouts. The family, which includes ornithopods such as Edmontosaurus and Parasaurolophus, was a common group of herbivores during the Late Cretaceous Period in what is now Asia, Europe, Africa, Antarctica, South America, and North America. Hadrosaurids are descendants of the Upper Jurassic/Lower Cretaceous iguanodontian dinosaurs and had a similar body layout.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hadrosauridae

OK using pic:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Barsboldia_sicinskii_(2).jpg
Barsboldia sicinskii - lambeosaurid from early Maastrichtian of Mongolia
Attribution: Dmitry Bogdanov
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license.

Barsboldia
Temporal range: Late Cretaceous, 70 Ma
Clade: Dinosauria
Family: Hadrosauridae
Barsboldia (meaning "of Barsbold", a well-known Mongolian paleontologist) was a genus of large hadrosaurid dinosaur from the early Maastrichtian Nemegt Formation of Ömnogöv', Mongolia.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barsboldia

SHARK
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Great_White_Shark_(14730719119).jpg
Description: Great White Shark
Attribution: Elias Levy
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license.
INFO
Shark
Temporal range: Ludfordian-Present, 425–0 Ma
the earliest known sharks date back to more than 420 million years ago.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shark

SMALL DINOSAURS
see NOASAURUS, HEYUANNIA, ANSERIMIMUS, LEPTOCERATOPS, BOROGOVIA, SECERNOSAURUS.

SNAKE
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:2017.07.17.-17-Tiefer_See_oder_Grubensee-Storkow_(Mark)--Ringelnatter.jpg
Description
Grass snake - Natrix natrix.
Attribution: Andreas Eichler
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International license.
INFO
Snake
Temporal range:
Late Cretaceous – Present, 94–0 Ma

Snakes are elongated, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes

Snakes are thought to have evolved from either burrowing or aquatic lizards, perhaps during the Jurassic period, with the earliest known fossils dating to between 143 and 167 Ma ago.

An alternative hypothesis, based on morphology, suggests the ancestors of snakes were related to mosasaurs—extinct aquatic reptiles from the Cretaceous—which in turn are thought to have derived from varanid lizards.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Snake

STEGOSAURUS
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:202009_Stegosaurus_stenops.svg
Attribution: DataBase Center for Life Science (DBCLS)
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.

TORTOISE
see Turtle

TURTLE, TORTOISE
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Florida_Box_Turtle_Digon3_re-edited.jpg
Florida Box Turtle
Attribution: Jonathan Zander (Digon3)
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.

https://www.publicdomainpictures.net/en/view-image.php?image=270067&picture=large-tortoise
https://www.publicdomainpictures.net/pictures/280000/velka/large-tortoise-1537959003HXj.jpg

INFO
Turtle
Temporal range:
Middle Jurassic – Present, Aalenian–Holocene

Turtles are reptiles of the order Chelonia /kɪˈloʊniə/ or Testudines /tɛˈstjuːdɪniːz/. They are characterized by a special bony or cartilaginous shell developed from their ribs that acts as a shield. Testudines includes both extant (living) and extinct species. Its earliest known members date from the Middle Jurassic. Turtles are one of the oldest reptile groups, more ancient than snakes or crocodilians.

On a few rare occasions, paleontologists have unearthed large numbers of Jurassic or Cretaceous turtle skeletons accumulated in a single area (the Nemegt Formation in Mongolia, the Turtle Graveyard in North Dakota, or the Black Mountain Turtle Layer in Wyoming).

Turtles are divided into two extant suborders: Cryptodira and Pleurodira. The Cryptodira is the larger of the two groups and includes all the marine turtles, the terrestrial tortoises, and many of the freshwater turtles.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turtle

Pleurodira
Temporal range: Late Jurassic to present 163–present Ma
The Pleurodira are one of the two living suborders of turtles, the other being the Cryptodira.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pleurodira

Cryptodira
Temporal range: Early Jurassic—present, 190–0 Ma

The Cryptodira (Greek: hidden neck) are a suborder of Testudines that includes most living tortoises and turtles. They include among their species freshwater turtles, snapping turtles, tortoises, softshell turtles, and sea turtles.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cryptodira

Allopleuron
Temporal range: Early Cretaceous–Oligocene
94.3–28.4 Ma

Allopleuron is a genus of extinct sea turtle, which measured 2-to-2.5-metre (6 ft 7 in to 8 ft 2 in) long in life.

Allopleuron lived from the Early Cretaceous (Cenomanian age, 94.3 Ma) to the Oligocene (Rupelian age, 28.4 Ma), therefore surviving the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allopleuron
Comparison with the leatherback turtle suggests it weighed 680kg.

The leatherback turtle is the largest species of turtle alive today. It can reach a total length of 2.5 m (8.2 ft.) with a weight of 680 kg (1,500 lb.).
https://www.nature.ca/notebooks/english/leathert.htm

Loggerhead sea turtle
max weight 545 kg
max length 213 cm
https://dinoanimals.com/animals/largest-heaviest-longest-turtle-top-10/

Could be helpful?
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Carbonemys_Cofrinii.jpg
The enormous freshwater turtle, that existed around 60 million years ago, is depicted here having just snapped up a crocodylomorph from a patiently awaited lakeside ambush. The adult turtle would have been about the same size as a Smart car, and the shell could have been inverted and used as a kiddie pool. Fossil evidence suggest that the jaws were very powerful and most likely would have crushed mollusks and crocodiles with a single snap. Its large size would have made it virtually impervious to attack from the larger crocodillian species of the era. The turtle evolved in a period after the dinosaurs. This is only an artistic depiction since there is not much fossil remains at this time.
Attribution: AuntSpray
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.
INFO
Carbonemys
Temporal range: Mid-Late Paleocene (Peligran-Itaboraian) ~60–58 Ma

Carbonemys cofrinii is an extinct podocnemidid turtle known from the Middle Paleocene Cerrejón Formation of the Cesar-Ranchería Basin in northeastern Colombia. The formation is dated at around 60 to 57 million years ago, starting at about five million years after the KT extinction event.
In 2005, the holotype specimen was discovered in the Cerrejón coal mine by a North Carolina State University doctoral student named Edwin Cadena. It had a shell that measured about 1.72 metres (5 ft 8 in), making it one of the world's largest turtles.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbonemys

640 kg would be a good estimate.
Approx length would also be 2.25 m
[using length and weight dimensions for other turtles]

TYRANNOSAURUS REX
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:202007_Tyrannosaurus_rex.svg
Attribution: DataBase Center for Life Science (DBCLS)
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tyrannosaurus-rex-Profile-steveoc86.png
Attribution: Steveoc 86
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International license.

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tyrannosaurus_rex_Reconstruction_by_Nobu_Tamura.jpg
Attribution: Nobu Tamura
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International license.

ANY OTHER STUFF
space-aliens-travel.jpg
Two Martian friends use the Rover as a taxi.
https://www.fg-a.com/aliens11.htm

CREATIVE COMMONS LICENSES
Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license.
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/deed.en

Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic license.
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/deed.en

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license.
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/deed.en

Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/deed.en

Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International license.
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.en


Some google search results may be mixed in with the general references. I also noticed over time small adjustments can occur in the wikipedia quotes.

KT, K-T, K-Pg extinction event. All the same. K-T was the terminology for Cretaceous-Tertiary. Tertiary is no longer used and other periods are now used starting with Paleogene or Pg for short, hence K-Pg. Old articles will have K-T and newer ones K-Pg.

Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event
The Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) extinction event (also known as the Cretaceous–Tertiary (K–T) extinction) was a sudden mass extinction of three-quarters of the plant and animal species on Earth, approximately 66 million years ago.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cretaceous%E2%80%93Paleogene_extinction_event

Because of its magnitude, scientists have speculated that the gases released during the formation of the Deccan Traps played a major role in the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event (also known as the Cretaceous-Tertiary or K-T extinction).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deccan_Traps

Gya, Bya, Byr, Ma, Myr etc convention controversy
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Billion_years
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Myr

ALVAREZs
PUBLIC DOMAIN

CHARLES DARWIN
Public Domain

GEOLOGICAL TIME COLUMN
Public Domain

HUMAN EVOLUTION
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Human_evolution_scheme.svg
Attribution: M. Garde
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en

DINOSAUR TRACKS
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dinosaur_footprints_(Dakota_Sandstone,_Lower_Cretaceous;_Dinosaur_Ridge,_Colorado,_USA)_6_(21589195623).jpg
Dinosaur tracksite in the Cretaceous of Colorado, USA.
Attribution: James St. John
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license.

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dinosaur_Footprints_found_in_the_Chewore_Hunting_area_of_Zimbabwe_03.JPG
Dinosaur Footprints found in the Chewore Hunting area of Zimbabwe.
Attribution: David17101944
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International license.
INFO

Earth: The Science Behind the Headlines
Travels in Geology: To the top of Europe: Jungfrau, Switzerland
Naomi Lubick Friday, November 12, 2010
https://www.earthmagazine.org/article/travels-geology-top-europe-jungfrau-switzerland

DINOSAUR NESTS

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_dinosaur_book_-_the_ruling_reptiles_and_their_relatives_(1945)_(20964195881).jpg
A nest of eggs of Protoceratops from Mongolia.
Author Internet Archive Book Images
NO KNOWN COPYRIGHT RESTRICTIONS

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dinosaur_eggs_-_Kunming_Natural_History_Museum_of_Zoology_-_DSC02394.JPG
Fossil exhibit in the Kunming Natural History Museum of Zoology, Kunming, Yunnan, China.
Author Daderot
PUBLIC DOMAIN

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Maiasaurusnest.jpg
credit to en:user:Ovulator
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.
INFO

15 Infant Dinosaurs Discovered Crowded in Nest
Charles Choi
November 18, 2011

A nest of 15 young dinosaurs uncovered in Mongolia — cousins of Triceratops — now suggests these plant-eating beasts might have cared for their young, scientists reveal.

The dinosaur is named Protoceratops andrewsi, a sheep-size herbivore that lived about 70 million years ago that's known for the frill at the back of its head. Within the nest were infants about 4 to 6 inches (10 to 15 centimeters) long and probably no more than a year old.
https://news.yahoo.com/15-infant-dinosaurs-discovered-crowded-nest-161409482.html

EARTH / CREATION

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_Earth_seen_from_Apollo_17.jpg
Author: NASA/Apollo 17 crew; taken by either Harrison Schmitt or Ron Evans
"The Blue Marble" is a famous photograph of the Earth taken on December 7, 1972, by the crew of the Apollo 17 spacecraft en route to the Moon at a distance of about 29,000 kilometres (18,000 mi). It shows Africa, Antarctica, and the Arabian Peninsula.
Public Domain

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cosmic_%E2%80%98Winter%E2%80%99_Wonderland.jpg
Although there are no seasons in space, this cosmic vista invokes thoughts of a frosty winter landscape. It is, in fact, a region called NGC 6357 where radiation from hot, young stars is energizing the cooler gas in the cloud that surrounds them.
Public Domain

https://www.freebibleimages.org/illustrations/creation/
Then God said, ‘Let us make man in our image to be the master of all life upon the earth, skies and the seas.’ God formed a man from the dust of the ground and breathed life into his nostrils. The man became a living being. – Slide 12

God creates the heavens and earth

The original illustrations are the copyright of Sweet Publishing and these digitally adjusted compilations of them the copyright of FreeBibleimages. They are made available for free download under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported license.
Individual images can be used on web pages, blogs and social media with attribution to Sweet Publishing / FreeBibleimages.org.
You can create a link to the relevant page on FreeBibleimages.org to allow others to download sets of these images under the same Terms of Download.
Downloaded pictures can be used in the retelling of Bible stories and narrative that are faithful to the Biblical account. They are not to be used in any context where the accompanying message is undermining of the Christian faith and gospel.

K-Pg BOUNDARY
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:K-T-boundary.JPG
The intermediate claystone layer contains 1000 times more iridium than the upper and lower layers. It is the boundary between Cretaceous and Tertiary Periods. Picture taken by the author at San Diego Natural History Museum. The rock is from Wyoming, USA.
Attribution: Zimbres
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.

METEOR etc

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chicxulub_impact_-_artist_impression.jpg
Chicxulub impact site
This painting by Donald E. Davis depicts an asteroid slamming into tropical, shallow seas of the sulfur-rich Yucatan Peninsula in what is today southeast Mexico. The aftermath of this immense asteroid collision, which occurred approximately 65 million years ago, is believed to have caused the extinction of the dinosaurs and many other species on Earth. The impact spewed hundreds of billions of tons of sulfur into the atmosphere, producing a worldwide blackout and freezing temperatures which persisted for at least a decade. Shown in this painting are pterodactyls, flying reptiles with wingspans of up to 50 feet, gliding above low tropical clouds.
Author Donald E. Davis
PUBLIC DOMAIN

THE NEW YORKER
Annals of the Former World
April 8, 2019 Issue
The Day the Dinosaurs Died
A young paleontologist may have discovered a record of the most significant event in the history of life on Earth.
By Douglas Preston
March 29, 2019
https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2019/04/08/the-day-the-dinosaurs-died

SUPERCOMPUTERS

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sequoia6.1000pix.jpg
IBM Sequoia
Author Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
PUBLIC DOMAIN

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Earth_Simulator_3_PB111950.jpg
Racks of computational nodes of Earth Simulator (third generation). Photographed on the open house day of JAMSTEC Yokohama Institute for Earth Sciences.
Attribution: Kestrel
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International license.

Yellowstone [as of 2014]
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:NSF-supported_Research_Facilities_(15947776872).jpg
With NSF support, the NCAR-Wyoming Supercomputer Center (NWSC) in Cheyenne, Wyo., houses high performance computers, mass storage (data archival) systems and related systems and infrastructure. The center is operated by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). The center’s flagship supercomputer, known as Yellowstone, has the ability to work at 1.5 petaflops, equal to 1.5 quadrillion (a million billion) mathematical operations per second. Researchers use the supercomputer to advance scientific understanding of climate change, severe weather, air quality, and other atmospheric and geosciences challenges. This is a view of some of Yellowstone’s 100 racks.
Author National Science Foundation
PUBLIC DOMAIN

CREATURES, ANIMALS ETC

AERODACTYLUS
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Aerodactylus_scolopaciceps.jpg
Attribution: Nobu Tamura
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license.

ANKYLOSAURUS
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:202007_Ankylosaurus_magniventris.svg
Attribution: DataBase Center for Life Science (DBCLS)
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.

ANSERIMIMUS

Anserimimus
Temporal range: Late Cretaceous, 70 Ma
Clade: Dinosauria
Family: Ornithomimidae
Anserimimus (/ˌænsərɪˈmaɪməs/ AN-sər-i-MY-məs; "goose mimic") is a genus of ornithomimid theropod dinosaur, from the Late Cretaceous Period of what is now Mongolia.
Anserimimus was a medium-sized ornithomimosaurian. Gregory S. Paul in 2010 estimated its length at three metres, its weight at fifty kilogrammes.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anserimimus

Anserimimus
Pronunciation: ANN-ser-ih-mee-muss
Name meaning: 'goose mimic'
When it lived: Late Cretaceous, 84-65 million years ago
Found in: Mongolia
Type of dinosaur: large theropod
Length: 3.5m
The Natural History Museum, London
https://www.nhm.ac.uk/discover/dino-directory/anserimimus.html

Anserimimus Barsbold 1988 (ornithomimid)
Age range: 70.6 to 66.043 Ma
http://fossilworks.org/

But have no pic.
Using pic of ornithomimid Qiupalong:
Great pic from
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Qiupalong_Restoration.png
Life restoration of an individual of the (apparently) North American ornithomimids Qiupalong. The holotype was found in Asia dating to the Maastrichtian stage, however, several older findings indicate that the species originated in North American and radiated to Asia.
Attribution: PaleoNeolitic
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.

Qiupalong
Temporal range: Late Cretaceous, 76.5–66 Ma
Clade: Dinosauria
Family: Ornithomimidae
Qiupalong is a genus of extinct ornithomimid theropods from the Late Cretaceous of what is now China and Canada.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qiupalong

BIRDS

Bird
Temporal range:
Early Cretaceous (Aptian) – Present, 121–0 Ma

Birds are a group of feathered theropod dinosaurs, and constitute the only living dinosaurs. Likewise, birds are considered reptiles in the modern cladistic sense of the term, and their closest living relatives are the crocodilians. Birds are descendants of the primitive avialans (whose members include Archaeopteryx) which first appeared about 160 million years ago (mya) in China. According to DNA evidence, modern birds (Neornithes) evolved in the Middle to Late Cretaceous, and diversified dramatically around the time of the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event 66 mya, which killed off the pterosaurs and all non-avian dinosaurs.

Dinosaurs and the origin of birds

Based on fossil and biological evidence, most scientists accept that birds are a specialised subgroup of theropod dinosaurs, and more specifically, they are members of Maniraptora, a group of theropods which includes dromaeosaurids and oviraptorosaurs, among others.

The Late Jurassic Archaeopteryx is well known as one of the first transitional fossils to be found, and it provided support for the theory of evolution in the late 19th century.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bird

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Domestic_canary_2.jpg
A yellow domestic canary on a cage.
Attribution: Yavor Uzunov
Public Domain

Other bird pics
https://www.publicdomainpictures.net
Public domain

BOROGOVIA

Borogovia
Temporal range: Late Cretaceous, 70 Ma
Clade: Dinosauria
Family: Troodontidae
Borogovia is a troodontid theropod dinosaur genus which lived during the Late Cretaceous Period, in what is now Mongolia.
Borogovia is about two meters (6 feet) long, weighing some twenty kilograms (forty-five pounds).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Borogovia

Borogovia
Pronunciation: bor-o-goh-vee-a
Name meaning: 'borogove'
When it lived: Late Cretaceous, 84-65 million years ago
Found in: Mongolia
Type of dinosaur: small theropod
Length: 1.5m
The Natural History Museum, London
https://www.nhm.ac.uk/discover/dino-directory/borogovia.html

Borogovia Osmolska 1987 (coelurosaur)
PaleoDB taxon number: 64790
Age range: 84.9 to 66.043 Ma
http://fossilworks.org/

The Natural History Museum, London gives the Borogovia length as 1.5m and an approximate weight would then be 8.5 kg ??? Leave at 2 m.

Use pic of a troodontid
Stenonychosaurus
Temporal range: Campanian, 76 Ma
Clade: Dinosauria
Family: Troodontidae
Stenonychosaurus (meaning "narrow claw lizard") is a genus of troodontid dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous Dinosaur Park Formation of Alberta, Canada, as well as possibly the Two Medicine Formation.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stenonychosaurus

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hand_drawn_Troodon.jpg
Life restoration of Stenonychosaurus inequalis
Attribution: IJReid
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.

CROCODYLOMORPHA
Temporal range: Late Triassic–Recent, 235–0 Ma

Crocodylomorpha is a group of archosaurs that includes the crocodilians and their extinct relatives.
"Modern" crocodilians did not appear until the Late Cretaceous.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crocodylomorpha

Crocodilia
Temporal range: Late Cretaceous – Recent 83.5–0 Ma

Crocodilia (or Crocodylia, both /krɒkəˈdɪliə/) is an order of mostly large, predatory, semiaquatic reptiles, known as crocodilians. …
The order Crocodilia includes the true crocodiles (family Crocodylidae), the alligators and caimans (family Alligatoridae), and the gharial and false gharial (family Gavialidae). Although the term 'crocodiles' is sometimes used to refer to all of these, crocodilians is a less ambiguous vernacular term for members of this group.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crocodilia

Crocodile
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nile_croc_couple_690V1510_-_Flickr_-_Lip_Kee.jpg
Attribution: Lip Kee from Singapore, Republic of Singapore
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic license.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Chenanisuchus_BW.jpg
Chenanisuchus lateroculi was a short-snouted dyrosaurid crocodylomorph from the Late Paleocene of Morocco
Attribution: Nobu Tamura
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license.
INFO
Chenanisuchus
Temporal range: Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) - Paleocene

Chenanisuchus ("Chenane crocodile") is a genus of dyrosaurid crocodyliform from the Late Cretaceous of Mali and the Late Palaeocene of Sidi Chenane in Morocco.
Chenanisuchus lateroculi has an estimated adult length between 4 and 4.5 meters, based on the 60 centimeter long skull.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chenanisuchus

Chenanisuchus lateroculi has an estimated adult length between 4 and 4.5 meters, based on the 60 centimeter long skull.
https://fossil.fandom.com/wiki/Chenanisuchus
Length 4.5 m
Weight guesstimate using American alligator: 570 kg

The largest American alligator scientifically verified in Florida for the period from 1977 to 1993 was reportedly 4.23 m (13 ft 11 in) and weighed 473 kg (1,043 lb)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_alligator

Crocodyliformes
Temporal range: Late Triassic–Recent, 225–0 Ma

Crocodyliformes is a clade of crurotarsan archosaurs, the group often traditionally referred to as "crocodilians". They are the first members of Crocodylomorpha to possess many of the features that define later relatives.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crocodyliformes

DASPLETOSAURUS
https://dino.wikia.org/wiki/Daspletosaurus
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Daspletosaurus_torosus_steveoc_flipped.jpg
Attribution Steveoc 86 at English Wikipedia
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.5 Generic license.

DINOSAUR

“The fossil record shows that birds are modern feathered dinosaurs”

Dinosaur
Temporal range: Late Triassic–Present, 233.23 – 0 Mya (Range includes birds (Aves))

Dinosaurs are a diverse group of reptiles of the clade Dinosauria. They first appeared during the Triassic period, between 243 and 233.23 million years ago, although the exact origin and timing of the evolution of dinosaurs is the subject of active research. They became the dominant terrestrial vertebrates after the Triassic–Jurassic extinction event 201.3 million years ago; their dominance continued throughout the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods. The fossil record shows that birds are modern feathered dinosaurs, having evolved from earlier theropods during the Late Jurassic epoch, and are the only dinosaur lineage to survive the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event approximately 66 million years ago. Dinosaurs can therefore be divided into avian dinosaurs, or birds; and the extinct non-avian dinosaurs, which are all dinosaurs other than birds.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dinosaur

DIPLODOCUS
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:202005_Diplodocus_carnegii.svg
Attribution: DataBase Center for Life Science (DBCLS)
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.

DUCK-BILLED PLATYPUS
see Monotremes.

ECHIDNA
see Monotremes.

FROG
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Litoria_phyllochroa.JPG
Author User:Froggydarb
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.
INFO:
Early Jurassic – Present, 200–0 Ma

A frog is any member of a diverse and largely carnivorous group of short-bodied, tailless amphibians composing the order Anura (literally without tail in Ancient Greek). The oldest fossil "proto-frog" appeared in the early Triassic of Madagascar, but molecular clock dating suggests their origins may extend further back to the Permian, 265 million years ago.
They are also seen as environmental bellwethers, with declines in frog populations often viewed as early warning signs of environmental damage.
For the skin to serve as a respiratory organ, it must remain moist. This makes frogs susceptible to various substances they may encounter in the environment, some of which may be toxic and can dissolve in the water film and be passed into their bloodstream. This may be one of the causes of the worldwide decline in frog populations.
Many environmental scientists believe amphibians, including frogs, are good biological indicators of broader ecosystem health
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frog

HEYUANNIA

Heyuannia
Pronunciation: Hey-YOU-ARN-ee-ah
Name meaning: 'from [the city of] Heyuan'
When it lived: Late Cretaceous, 72-68 million years ago
Found in: Mongolia
Type of dinosaur: small theropod
Length: 2.0m
The Natural History Museum, London
https://www.nhm.ac.uk/discover/dino-directory/heyuannia.html

Heyuannia
Temporal range: Late Cretaceous, 70–66 Ma
Clade: Dinosauria
Clade: Theropoda
Family: Oviraptoridae
Heyuannia ("from Heyuan") is a genus of oviraptorid dinosaur that lived during the Late Cretaceous Period in China.
Heyuannia is a medium-sized oviraptorid. Gregory S. Paul in 2010 estimated its length at 1.5 metres, the weight at twenty kilograms.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heyuannia

Heyuannia Lü 2003 (coelurosaur)
Age range: 70.6 to 66.043 Ma
http://fossilworks.org/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Heyuannia_and_eggs_nest.jpg
Life restoration of Heyuannia with its nest of eggs
Attribution: Danny Cicchetti
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International license.

LEPTOCERATOPS

Leptoceratops
Pronunciation: lep-toh-ker-ah-tops
Name meaning: 'slim horned face'
When it lived: Late Cretaceous, 67-65 million years ago
Found in: Canada, USA
Type of dinosaur: ceratopsian
Length: 3.0m
The Natural History Museum, London
https://www.nhm.ac.uk/discover/dino-directory/leptoceratops.html

Leptoceratops
Temporal range: Late Cretaceous, 68.8–66 Ma
Leptoceratops (meaning 'Thin-horned face' and derived from Greek lepto-/λεπτο- meaning 'small', 'insignificant', 'slender', 'meagre' or 'lean', kerat-/κερατ- meaning 'horn' and -ops/ωψ meaning face), is a genus of primitive ceratopsian dinosaurs from the late Cretaceous Period (late Maastrichtian age, 68.8-66 Ma ago) of what is now Western North America.
Leptoceratops was around 2 metres (6.6 ft) long and could have weighed between 68 to 200 kilograms (150 to 441 lb).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leptoceratops

Leptoceratopsid is more correct.

Leptoceratops Brown 1914 (leptoceratopsid)
Age range: 70.6 to 66.043 Ma
http://fossilworks.org/

Ceratopsia
Temporal range: Late Jurassic – Late Cretaceous, 161–66 Ma
Clade: Dinosauria
Suborder: Ceratopsia
Subgroups
Leptoceratopsidae
Ceratopsia or Ceratopia (/ˌsɛrəˈtɒpsiə/ or /ˌsɛrəˈtoʊpiə/; Greek: "horned faces") is a group of herbivorous, beaked dinosaurs that thrived in what are now North America, Europe, and Asia, during the Cretaceous Period, although ancestral forms lived earlier, in the Jurassic.
Ceratopsians ranged in size from 1 meter (3 ft) and 23 kilograms (50 lb) to over 9 meters (30 ft) and 9,100 kg (20,100 lb).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ceratopsia

and using ceratopsian 9 m and 9100 kg we approximate 100 kg for 2 m length..

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Leptoceratops_BW.jpg
Leptoceratops gracilis, a ceratopsian from the Late Cretaceous of North America, pencil drawing, digital coloring
Attribution: Nobu Tamura
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license.

Prefer a better pic. Try generic Leptoceratopsid and ended up with:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Zhuchengceratops_NT.jpg
Zhuchengceratops
Attribution: NobuTamura
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.

Zhuchengceratops
Temporal range: Maastrichtian~70 Ma
Clade: Dinosauria
Family: Leptoceratopsidae
Zhuchengceratops is a genus of extinct leptoceratopsid ceratopsian that lived during the Upper Cretaceous of modern-day China.
The recovered specimen of Zhuchengceratops likely represents an adult, and is slightly larger than most adults of the similar ceratopsian Leptoceratops, which was around 2 meters in length.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zhuchengceratops

MAIASAURUS

Maiasaura
Temporal range: Late Cretaceous, 76.7 Ma

Maiasaura (from the Greek "μαία" and the feminine form of Latin saurus, meaning "good mother reptile" or "good mother lizard") is a large herbivorous hadrosaurid ("duck-billed") dinosaur genus that lived in the area currently covered by the state of Montana in the Upper Cretaceous Period (mid to late Campanian), about 76.7 million years ago.

The first fossils of Maiasaura were discovered in 1978. The genus was named in 1979. The name refers to the find of nests with eggs, embryos and young animals, in a nesting colony.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maiasaura

MONOTREMES

Platypus + Echidna pics
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Monotreme_collage.jpg
Four of the five extant monotreme species: platypus (top-left), short-beaked echidna (top-right), western long-beaked echidna (bottom-left), and replica eastern long-beaked echidna (bottom-right).
Constituent files:
File:Platypus BrokenRiver QLD Australia.jpg
File:Long-beakedEchidna.jpg
File:Echidna in the Karawatha Forest - Radford.jpg
File:Zaglossus bartoni - MUSE.JPG
Attribution: Ypna
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International license.
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.en

Monotremes
Temporal range: Early Cretaceous-Recent
[pic]
Four of the five extant monotreme species: platypus (top-left), short-beaked echidna (top-right), western long-beaked echidna (bottom-left), and replica eastern long-beaked echidna (bottom-right)
Monotremes (/ˈmɒnətriːmz/, from Greek μονός, monos ('single') and τρῆμα, trema ('hole'), referring to the cloaca) are one of the three main groups of living mammals, along with placentals (Eutheria) and marsupials (Metatheria).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monotreme

The platypus is one of the few monotremes still in existence today. The egg-laying mammal was only recently discovered to have lived during the Jurassic period. After analyzing a Teinolophos jawbone in 2008, University of Texas paleontologist Tim Rowe discovered that platypuses dated back as far as 122 million years ago.
Platypuses are one of only two mammalian species that lay eggs, the other being echidnas, or spiny anteaters.
https://www.huffpost.com/entry/animals-as-old-as-dinosaurs_n_6982300

Teinolophos
Temporal range: Aptian ~120–113 Ma
Teinolophos is a prehistoric species of monotreme, or egg-laying mammal. It is known from four specimens, each consisting of a partial lower jawbone collected from the Wonthaggi Formation at Flat Rocks, Victoria, Australia. It lived during the Aptian age of the Lower Cretaceous.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teinolophos

Platypus
Evolution, paleontology, and classification
Aquatically adapted platypus-like monotremes probably evolved from a more-generalized terrestrial monotreme. The first occurrence in the fossil record of a platypus-like monotreme is from about 110 million years ago, in the early Cretaceous Period, when Australia was still connected to South America by Antarctica.
https://www.britannica.com/animal/platypus

MOSASAUR
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mosasaurus_missouriensis_NT.png
Life reconstruction of Mosasaurus missouriensis
Attribution: Nobu Tamura
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International license.
INFO
Mosasaur
Temporal range: Late Cretaceous, 101–66 Ma

Mosasaurs (from Latin Mosa meaning the 'Meuse', and Greek σαύρος sauros meaning 'lizard') comprise a group of extinct, large marine reptiles containing 40 genera in total.
Mosasaurus hoffmannii, the largest known species, may have reached up to 17 m (56 ft) in length. Currently, the largest publicly exhibited mosasaur skeleton in the world is on display at the Canadian Fossil Discovery Centre in Morden, Manitoba. The specimen, nicknamed "Bruce", is just over 13 m (43 ft) long.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mosasaur

Length: 10 – 18 m
Mass: 14,000 kg
Google

So Bruce, at 13 m, would be approx 5274 kg or 5.3 tonnes.

NOASAURUS

Noasaurus
Pronunciation: noh-ah-sore-us
Name meaning: 'northwestern Argentina lizard'
When it lived: Late Cretaceous, 84-65 million years ago
Found in: Argentina
Type of dinosaur: small theropod
Length: 1.0m
The Natural History Museum, London
https://www.nhm.ac.uk/discover/dino-directory/noasaurus.html

Noasaurus
Temporal range: Late Cretaceous, 70 Ma
Clade: Dinosauria
Family: Noasauridae
Noasaurus ("Northwestern Argentina lizard") is a genus of ceratosaurian theropod dinosaur genus from the late Campanian-Maastrichtian (Late Cretaceous) of Argentina.
Noasaurus was a small theropod. Gregory S.Paul estimated its length at 1.5 meters (5 ft), its weight at 15 kg (33 lbs).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noasaurus

Noasaurus Bonaparte and Powell 1980 (ceratosaur)
Age range: 70.6 to 66.043 Ma
http://fossilworks.org/

use pic of

Noasaurid
Masiakasaurus
Temporal range: Late Cretaceous, 70 Ma
Family: Noasauridae
Masiakasaurus is a genus of small predatory theropod dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Masiakasaurus

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Masiakasaurus_BW_(flipped).jpg
Masiakasaurus knopfleri, a small noasaurid theropod from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar, pencil drawing
Attribution: Nobu Tamura
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.

PLATYPUS
see Monotremes

PLESIOSAUR
https://reptilepedia.fandom.com/wiki/Plesiosaurus
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Paleo_Hall_at_HMNS_plesiosaur.jpg
Description Paleo Hall at HMNS
Date 22 August 2013, 15:18
Source Paleo Hall at HMNS
Uploaded by FunkMonk
Author Kim Alaniz

INFO
Plesiosauria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Plesiosaur)
Temporal range: Late Triassic - Late Cretaceous, 203.6–66.0 Ma

The Plesiosauria (/ˌpliːsiəˈsɔːriə, -zi-/; Greek: πλησίος, plesios, meaning "near to" and sauros, meaning "lizard") or plesiosaurs are an order or clade of extinct Mesozoic marine reptiles (marine Sauropsida), belonging to the Sauropterygia.

Plesiosaurs first appeared in the latest Triassic Period, possibly in the Rhaetian stage, about 203 million years ago. They became especially common during the Jurassic Period, thriving until their disappearance due to the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event at the end of the Cretaceous Period, about 66 million years ago. They had a worldwide oceanic distribution.
In the middle of the Jurassic, very large Pliosauridae evolved. These were characterized by a large head and a short neck, such as Liopleurodon and Simolestes. These forms had skulls up to three metres (ten feet) long and reached a length of up to seventeen metres (56 feet) and a weight of ten tonnes.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plesiosauria

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Aristonectes_NT_small.jpg
Attribution: Nobu Tamura
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International license.
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Aristonectes_Scale.svg
Author User:Slate Weasel
PUBLIC DOMAIN
gives length as approx 10 m.
INFO
Aristonectes
Temporal range: Maastrichtian ~70–66 Ma

Aristonectes (meaning 'best swimmer') is an extinct genus of plesiosaur from the Late Cretaceous
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aristonectes
Using above info we can approximate the weight as: 2 tonnes.

PTERODACTYL
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Pterodactylus_BMMS7_life.png
Attribution: Matthew Martyniuk
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International license.
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.en

SALAMANDER
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:SpottedSalamander.jpg
Author Camazine at English Wikipedia) (Scott Camazine)
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.
INFO:
Late Jurassic – Present, 160–0 Ma
Salamanders are a group of amphibians typically characterized by a lizard-like appearance, with slender bodies, blunt snouts, short limbs projecting at right angles to the body, and the presence of a tail in both larvae and adults. All 10 present-day salamander families are grouped together under the order Urodela.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salamander

SECERNOSAURUS

Secernosaurus
Pronunciation: see-ser-noh-sore-us
Name meaning: 'separated lizard'
When it lived: Late Cretaceous, 71-65 million years ago
Found in: Argentina
Type of dinosaur: euornithopod
Length: 3.0m
The Natural History Museum, London
https://www.nhm.ac.uk/discover/dino-directory/secernosaurus.html

Secernosaurus
Temporal range: Late Cretaceous, 85–66 Ma
Clade: Dinosauria
Family: Hadrosauridae
Secernosaurus (meaning "severed lizard") is a genus of herbivorous dinosaur. Secernosaurus was a hadrosaur, a "duck-billed" dinosaur which lived during the Late Cretaceous.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Secernosaurus

Secernosaurus Brett-Surman 1979 (hadrosaurid)
Age range: 84.9 to 66.043 Ma
http://fossilworks.org/

Hadrosaurus
Temporal range: Late Cretaceous,~80–78 Ma
Clade: Dinosauria
Family: Hadrosauridae
Hadrosaurus (/ˌhædrəˈsɔːrəs/; meaning "bulky lizard") is a genus of hadrosaurid ornithopod dinosaurs that lived in North America during the Late Cretaceous Period in what is now the Woodbury Formation about 80 million to 78 million years ago.
They were large animals ranging from 7 to 8 m (23 to 26 ft) and 2 to 4 t (2,000 to 4,000 kg).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hadrosaurus

Brachylophosaurus (/brəˌkɪləfoʊˈsɔːrəs/ brə-KIL-ə-fo-SAWR-əs or /ˌbrækiˌloʊfəˈsɔːrəs/ brak-i-LOH-fə-SAWR-əs; meaning "short-crested lizard", Greek brachys = short + lophos = crest + sauros = lizard, referring to its small crest) was a mid-sized member of the hadrosaurid family of dinosaurs.
Brachylophosaurus was a typical hadrosaur which reached an adult length of at least 9 metres (30 ft). In 2010, Gregory S. Paul estimated maximum length at 11 metres (36 ft) resulting in weight of 7 metric tons (7.7 short tons).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brachylophosaurus

Unfortunately using a hadrosaur weight of 7000 kg and length 11 m gives approx 140 kg. A bit big? Probably a bit small for a dinosaur so still could use. Large dinosaurs are 1 tonne and upward. This is still a small dinosaur.

Look at hadrosaurids for a pic:
Hadrosauridae
Hadrosaurids
Temporal range: Late Cretaceous, 86–66 Ma
Clade: Dinosauria
Family: Hadrosauridae
Hadrosaurids (Greek: ἁδρός, hadrós, "stout, thick"), or duck-billed dinosaurs, are members of the ornithischian family Hadrosauridae. This group is known as the duck-billed dinosaurs for the flat duck-bill appearance of the bones in their snouts. The family, which includes ornithopods such as Edmontosaurus and Parasaurolophus, was a common group of herbivores during the Late Cretaceous Period in what is now Asia, Europe, Africa, Antarctica, South America, and North America. Hadrosaurids are descendants of the Upper Jurassic/Lower Cretaceous iguanodontian dinosaurs and had a similar body layout.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hadrosauridae

OK using pic:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Barsboldia_sicinskii_(2).jpg
Barsboldia sicinskii - lambeosaurid from early Maastrichtian of Mongolia
Attribution: Dmitry Bogdanov
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license.

Barsboldia
Temporal range: Late Cretaceous, 70 Ma
Clade: Dinosauria
Family: Hadrosauridae
Barsboldia (meaning "of Barsbold", a well-known Mongolian paleontologist) was a genus of large hadrosaurid dinosaur from the early Maastrichtian Nemegt Formation of Ömnogöv', Mongolia.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barsboldia

SHARK
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Great_White_Shark_(14730719119).jpg
Description: Great White Shark
Attribution: Elias Levy
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license.
INFO
Shark
Temporal range: Ludfordian-Present, 425–0 Ma
the earliest known sharks date back to more than 420 million years ago.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shark

SMALL DINOSAURS
see NOASAURUS, HEYUANNIA, ANSERIMIMUS, LEPTOCERATOPS, BOROGOVIA, SECERNOSAURUS.

SNAKE
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:2017.07.17.-17-Tiefer_See_oder_Grubensee-Storkow_(Mark)--Ringelnatter.jpg
Description
Grass snake - Natrix natrix.
Attribution: Andreas Eichler
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International license.
INFO
Snake
Temporal range:
Late Cretaceous – Present, 94–0 Ma

Snakes are elongated, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes

Snakes are thought to have evolved from either burrowing or aquatic lizards, perhaps during the Jurassic period, with the earliest known fossils dating to between 143 and 167 Ma ago.

An alternative hypothesis, based on morphology, suggests the ancestors of snakes were related to mosasaurs—extinct aquatic reptiles from the Cretaceous—which in turn are thought to have derived from varanid lizards.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Snake

STEGOSAURUS
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:202009_Stegosaurus_stenops.svg
Attribution: DataBase Center for Life Science (DBCLS)
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.

TORTOISE
see Turtle

TURTLE, TORTOISE
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Florida_Box_Turtle_Digon3_re-edited.jpg
Florida Box Turtle
Attribution: Jonathan Zander (Digon3)
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.

https://www.publicdomainpictures.net/en/view-image.php?image=270067&picture=large-tortoise
https://www.publicdomainpictures.net/pictures/280000/velka/large-tortoise-1537959003HXj.jpg

INFO
Turtle
Temporal range:
Middle Jurassic – Present, Aalenian–Holocene

Turtles are reptiles of the order Chelonia /kɪˈloʊniə/ or Testudines /tɛˈstjuːdɪniːz/. They are characterized by a special bony or cartilaginous shell developed from their ribs that acts as a shield. Testudines includes both extant (living) and extinct species. Its earliest known members date from the Middle Jurassic. Turtles are one of the oldest reptile groups, more ancient than snakes or crocodilians.

On a few rare occasions, paleontologists have unearthed large numbers of Jurassic or Cretaceous turtle skeletons accumulated in a single area (the Nemegt Formation in Mongolia, the Turtle Graveyard in North Dakota, or the Black Mountain Turtle Layer in Wyoming).

Turtles are divided into two extant suborders: Cryptodira and Pleurodira. The Cryptodira is the larger of the two groups and includes all the marine turtles, the terrestrial tortoises, and many of the freshwater turtles.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turtle

Pleurodira
Temporal range: Late Jurassic to present 163–present Ma
The Pleurodira are one of the two living suborders of turtles, the other being the Cryptodira.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pleurodira

Cryptodira
Temporal range: Early Jurassic—present, 190–0 Ma

The Cryptodira (Greek: hidden neck) are a suborder of Testudines that includes most living tortoises and turtles. They include among their species freshwater turtles, snapping turtles, tortoises, softshell turtles, and sea turtles.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cryptodira

Allopleuron
Temporal range: Early Cretaceous–Oligocene
94.3–28.4 Ma

Allopleuron is a genus of extinct sea turtle, which measured 2-to-2.5-metre (6 ft 7 in to 8 ft 2 in) long in life.

Allopleuron lived from the Early Cretaceous (Cenomanian age, 94.3 Ma) to the Oligocene (Rupelian age, 28.4 Ma), therefore surviving the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allopleuron
Comparison with the leatherback turtle suggests it weighed 680kg.

The leatherback turtle is the largest species of turtle alive today. It can reach a total length of 2.5 m (8.2 ft.) with a weight of 680 kg (1,500 lb.).
https://www.nature.ca/notebooks/english/leathert.htm

Loggerhead sea turtle
max weight 545 kg
max length 213 cm
https://dinoanimals.com/animals/largest-heaviest-longest-turtle-top-10/

Could be helpful?
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Carbonemys_Cofrinii.jpg
The enormous freshwater turtle, that existed around 60 million years ago, is depicted here having just snapped up a crocodylomorph from a patiently awaited lakeside ambush. The adult turtle would have been about the same size as a Smart car, and the shell could have been inverted and used as a kiddie pool. Fossil evidence suggest that the jaws were very powerful and most likely would have crushed mollusks and crocodiles with a single snap. Its large size would have made it virtually impervious to attack from the larger crocodillian species of the era. The turtle evolved in a period after the dinosaurs. This is only an artistic depiction since there is not much fossil remains at this time.
Attribution: AuntSpray
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.
INFO
Carbonemys
Temporal range: Mid-Late Paleocene (Peligran-Itaboraian) ~60–58 Ma

Carbonemys cofrinii is an extinct podocnemidid turtle known from the Middle Paleocene Cerrejón Formation of the Cesar-Ranchería Basin in northeastern Colombia. The formation is dated at around 60 to 57 million years ago, starting at about five million years after the KT extinction event.
In 2005, the holotype specimen was discovered in the Cerrejón coal mine by a North Carolina State University doctoral student named Edwin Cadena. It had a shell that measured about 1.72 metres (5 ft 8 in), making it one of the world's largest turtles.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbonemys

640 kg would be a good estimate.
Approx length would also be 2.25 m
[using length and weight dimensions for other turtles]

TYRANNOSAURUS REX
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:202007_Tyrannosaurus_rex.svg
Attribution: DataBase Center for Life Science (DBCLS)
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tyrannosaurus-rex-Profile-steveoc86.png
Attribution: Steveoc 86
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International license.

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tyrannosaurus_rex_Reconstruction_by_Nobu_Tamura.jpg
Attribution: Nobu Tamura
This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International license.

ANY OTHER STUFF
space-aliens-travel.jpg
Two Martian friends use the Rover as a taxi.
https://www.fg-a.com/aliens11.htm

CREATIVE COMMONS LICENSES
Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license.
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/deed.en

Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic license.
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/deed.en

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license.
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/deed.en

Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/deed.en

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https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/deed.en



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E-mail: stephen [at] greatesthoax.info
Stephen Buckley
Last revised: 24 Jun 2021.
Construction started about Oct 2020.


Page design/construction Stephen Buckley 2020.